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rekoh

Rekoh

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Lokasi Rekoh: “…menurut History of Selangor 1766-1939 oleh M.Gullick, saya mendapat maklumat bahawa pada akhir abad ke-19 yang lalu, di hujung JAlan Reko, berhampiran dengan stesen komuter Bandar Baru Bangi dan UKM sekarang, terdapat sebuah pekan kecil yang brnam Rekoh. Nama Rekoh ini ada dalam peta daerah Ulu Langat (sekarang Hulu Langat) abad ke-19. Sebuah sungai kecil berhampiran dengan UKM dan berhampiran dengan bekas tapak pekan Rekoh sehingga sekarang masih bernama Sungai Rekoh.” (Mahasiswi Kursus LMCR2273 Apresiasi Teknologi Maklumat, UKM, 2014: |"BLOG JALAN REKO: SEJARAH").

“Kajang started as a market place in 1860s where goods and produce were exchanged. Exploration for tin had been the main attraction in pulling migrants from Sumatra and Hakka labourers into Hulu Langat. Earliest recorded site of tin mining was at Rekoh, about 4 km from present Kajang. This is how Jln Reko, the road leading to UKM got its name. Frank Swettenham visited Rekoh in 1875 described the town had been a glorious place.” (Kajang Heritage Centre乌鲁冷岳社区文物馆, 21 April 2020: |"Kajang, a Tin Mining Town").

“Mengikut laporan Swettenham yang membuat lawatan ke tempat itu pada tahun 1875, pada masa itu Rekoh mempunyai penduduk tidak lebih daripada seratus orang yang terdiri daripada orang Melayu, Bugis, Cina dan Korinci. Mereka berada di bawah seorang ketua kampung Bugis (orang Bugis) yang dilantik oleh pembesar Sungai Ujong. Bagaimanapun, ketua kampung itu mungkin tidak disukai oleh penduduk tempat itu. Dia kemudian berpindah ke Singapura. Mengikut laporan Swettenham seterusnya, ” The village 'had the appearance of having been once a very prosperous place. There are plenty of substantial shops and houses built of plank and mud, as good native houses as I have seen anywhere, the Sungai Ujong style but better than houses there…a first Bazaar for houses that ia badly off for water.'“ (Andin Salleh, July 18, 2013: |"Pekan Rekoh yang sudah lenyap").

“Lee (Kim Sin) said much of Kajang’s history dating back to 1850s had been lost – Reko, the oldest settlement traced here, had “the best shops and houses of the time” according to the first British High Commissioner of Malaya Sir Frank Swettenham, but none of that can be seen now.” (Yip Yoke Teng @ The Star, 28 Jan 2019: |"Modern look is a defaced facade").

1848: Pembukaan oleh Raja Brayun

Rekoh telah dibuka oleh seorang pembesar Mandailing bernama Raja Berayun / Raja Brayun pada tahun 1848: “In 1848, Raja Berayun, a Mandailing, wanted to claim ‘blood money’ from Datoh Klana Sendeng, a Rawa, for the killing of one of his friends. He brought 500 men and invaded Sungai Ujong but they were defeated and they retreated to the north of the Langat River where they established a village called Rekoh. The current name for Rekoh is Sungai Tangkas; it is about 4 km from Kajang. It was to be the earliest settlement around Kajang.” (Eric Lim @ Museum Volunteers, JMM, July 15, 2020: |"History of Kajang").

LATAR PERISTIWA: Raja Berayun / Borayun / Brayun / Jabarayun

1840-1850-an: Pembukaan Lombong Bijih Timah

“Aktiviti melombong bijih timah di Kajang bermula di satu kawasan iaitu Reko atau Rekoh yang kini dikenali Kampung Sungai Tangkas yang menjadi daerah paling awal menjalankan aktiviti itu berbanding Kuala Lumpur. Di situ (Reko atau Rekoh) terdapat lombong dan masyarakat Mandailing tinggal di kawasan berkenaan. Orang Mandailing mengetuai aktiviti melombong bijih timah dan menjadi masyarakat pertama menjalankan aktiviti itu sekitar lewat 1840-an atau awal 1850-an.” (Lee Kim Sin @ Harian Metro, Ogos 11, 2017: |"Bijih timah jutaan tahun").

“In Ulu Langat as in many parts of the Malay States, the first stir of commercial activity began with tin mining. An American prospector probably attempted mining for tin at Reko near Kajang in the 1840s (Wong, 1965: 32). This venture was soon abandoned and taken over by some Chinese.” (Voon Phin Keong @ Malaysian Journal of Chinese Studies, Volume 2, No.2, 2013: |"Transforming the Development Frontier: Chinese Pioneers in the Ulu Langat District of Selangor, Malaysia", m.s.7-8).

1853: Tempat Perlindungan Raja Abdul Samad

Rekoh menjadi tempat perlindungan Raja Abdul Samad (beberapa tahun sebelum pertabalannya sebagai Sultan Abdul Samad): ”…pada tahun 1853, istana Selangor digemparkan dengan kemangkatan mengejut ketiga-tiga putera sultan yang sedang berselisihan faham mengenai takhta diraja Selangor tanpa diketahui sebab-musababnya. Namun begitu tidak lama selepas itu sebuah angkatan tentera Bugis Selangor telah diarahkan menangkap anak saudara Sultan Muhammad Shah yang bernama Raja Abdul Samad yang juga merupakan menantunya setelah Raja Abdul Samad dikahwinkan dengan puteri baginda yang bernama Raja Aftah. Raja Abdul Samad pada masa itu tinggal di Langat bersama dengan bapanya Raja Abdullah bin Sultan Ibrahim Shah yang diberikan hak untuk menjaga dan mengutip cukai di sana. Apabila mendapat tahu dirinya diburu, Raja Abdul Samad pun meninggalkan Langat dan berlindung kepada Jabarayun di Kampung Reko. - The Sunday Times, 2 Dec 1934.“ (Mohamed Azli bin Mohamed Azizi @ Lembaga Adat Mandailing Malaysia (LAMA): |"Kuala Lumpur Siapa Punya?").

“Kuasa dan wibawa Raja Borayun makin terkonsolidasi setelah beliau berhasil memukul mundur angkatan yang bakal menyerangnya di “Recko” tanpa tempur berkuah darah. Awalnya Raja Borayun dimurkai Sultan Muhammad sebab menjalin persahabatan yang akrab dengan Abdul Samad, keponakan dan menantu Sultan. Lantaran tidak menghiraukan kemurkaan Sultan, beliau menghadapi serangan angkatan Istana Selangor yang kiranya akan menghabisinya sama sekali. Angkatan istana sejumlah 500 buah perahu digalang di Kajang. Raja Borayun yang berada di “Recko” akan diserang dari sungai. Mujurlah Strategi Raja Borayun berhasil mematahkan serangan yang berbahaya dan mematikan itu.Kombatan Mandailing yang heroik sejumlah 300 orang menebang pohon kayu dan merintangkannya di tengah sungai. Apabila perahu yang membawa angkatan penyerang terbentur di tengah sungai, mereka akan diamuki dan dibantai semuanya. Menyadari peristiwa pembantaian berkuah darah yang bakal menimpa, para penyerang puntang-panting mendayung perahu kembali ke Kajang.” (Haji Hanafiah Kamal Bahrin Lubis, 23 Ogos 2014: |"HORAS ! SEPUTAR DAN BERPUTAR-PUTAR DI JALAN RAJA ALANG,KAJANG,SEL.").

1855: Pelombong dari Amerika

“Pada tahun 1855, satu lagi pergaduhan besar telah berlaku di Kampung Reko. Menurut ceritanya, berpuluh-puluh orang putih dari Amerika telah membawa 60 hamba abdi berbangsa Negro muncul secara tiba-tiba di Kampung Reko dan memulakan aktiviti perlombongan bijih timah di Sungai Tangkas. Jabarayun sebagai ketua lanun di Kampung Reko merasa tercabar dengan kehadiran tetamu yang tidak diundang itu yang memulakan aktiviti perlombongan tanpa meminta izin dari pembesar-pembesar tempatan.

Tanpa menunggu lama, Jabarayun membawa 300 pengikutnya yang bersenjatakan kapak dan beliung menyerang rombongan dari Amerika itu. Apabila diserang oleh Jabarayun dan pengikutnya, orang-orang Amerika itu segera melarikan diri menaiki sampan dari Sungai Tangkas dan hilang entah ke mana. 6 orang Amerika dibunuh dalam serangan ini. Nama gah Jabarayun menjadi semakin terkenal lagi berpengaruh di kalangan pembesar-pembesar Bugis Selangor. (212) – Burns (The Journals of F.A. Swettenham)”

(Sumber: Haji Hanafiah Kamal Bahrin Lubis, 23 Ogos 2014: |"HORAS ! SEPUTAR DAN BERPUTAR-PUTAR DI JALAN RAJA ALANG,KAJANG,SEL.").

Menurut sumber-sumber lain:-

  • ”…dikatakan ada orang Amerika yang telah membuka lombong bijih di Sungai Tangkas yang letaknya tidak jauh dari Rekoh dengan pengikutnya kira-kira 60 orang Orang Hitam. Akan tetapi mereka telah diserang oleh penduduk tempatan. Tiga orang orang Amerika dan setengah dozen buruh telah dibunuh dan rumah mereka telah dibakar. Pelombong yang lain berpindah untuk sementara ke Bagan Terendah, sebelum meneruskan usaha melombong di Kuala Langat.“ (Andin Salleh, July 18, 2013: |"Pekan Rekoh yang sudah lenyap").
  • “Decades before establishment of Kajang Town, Reko/Rekoh/Recko was already an active mining town. In 1850s, a dispute was reported between the American prospector and the local Malays. The Americans fled after some lives were lost. The Mendailing migrants from Sumatra were there much earlier prospecting tin and involved in commercial activities. Their chief was Raja Brayun or Jabrayun who later became the Panglima and bodyguard of Sultan Abdul Samad. Swettenhem visited the town in 1875 and described that it must be the most established town in the area. Reko left no trace of past glory. Few people knows of its existence. The road leading from Kajang to UKM is called Reko Road.” (Lee Kim Sin, 29 Julai 2017: |"Decades before establishment of Kajang Town, Reko/Rekoh/Recko was already an active mining town.").

  • “An American prospector started a tin mine at Rekoh in 1855. However, the locals objected as he did not possess any consent and the venture was abandoned. There were altercations and eventually, the Americans left.” (AKU BUDAK TELOK, Jun 15, 2021: |"KISAH SULTAN DAN NEGRO DI JUGRA DAN REKOH").

1875-1882: Tinjauan Daly

Pada tahun 1875, Sir Andrew Clarke, Gabenor Negeri-Negeri Selat, telah melantik Mr. Dominick Daniel (D.D.) Daly sebagai “Surveyor for the Native States”. Tugasan utama beliau ialah menjalankan tinjauan topografi di seluruh negeri Selangor. Pada Isnin, 8 Mei 1882, Mr. Daly, ketika itu pegawai superintenden Public Works and Survey, Selangor, telah menyampaikan laporan hasil tinjauan beliau di dalam mesyuarat Royal Geographical Society, yang turut dihadiri Sir Andrew Clarke. Antara lain beliau memetakan beberapa lokasi kawasan perlombongan bijih timah di sekitar Selangor (termasuk Rekoh dan Kajang), yang sebelum ini tidak diketahui oleh pihak British: “Klang was then the capital, but in 1880 the British Resident and his staff moved up river to Kuala Lumpur, which has a central position and is now a most important mining capital. From it Mr. Daly's surveys have radiated, fixing the positions of the principal tin mines and settlements - namely Kanching, Ulu Selangor, Ulu Bernam, Ulu Gomba(k), Ulu Klang, Ulu Langat, Sungie Puteh, Recko, and Kajang, with the jungle paths to them. The position of these places was quite unknown up to this date; and Mr. Daly described Ampagnan (Ampang), the chief of the tin mines, as a type of the whole intimating that the depth of the alluvial deposit over the thin layer of ore varies in different mines from 8 feet to 30 feet from the surface.” (SINGAPORE DAILY TIMES, 19 June 1882, Page 3: |"THE SURVEY OF THE MALAY STATES").

Map of The Malay Peninsula to accompany the paper of Mr D.D. DalyPeta Klang-Langat, 1882
Kajang dan Rekoh (Recko) dalam peta Selangor, tahun 1882.
Kiri: ”Map of The Malay Peninsula to accompany the paper of Mr D.D. Daly“ (|Map of The Malay Peninsula to accompany the paper of Mr D.D. Daly, 1882 @ National Archives of Singapore).
Kanan: Peta yang sama, versi lain: “Detailed map of the Malay Peninsula based on surveys by D.D. Daly, Superintendent of Public Works and Surveys, Selangor. Published in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society to accompany a paper by Mr. Daly. Original colour. [SEAS5072]” (Royal Geographical Society, 1882: |"Map of the Malay Peninsula").

Maklumat lanjut berkenaan tinjauan D.D. Daly: “The purposes of Daly's surveying in Selangor in mid-1870 are fixing the position and jungle tracks thereto of the principal tin mines. His surveys radiated from Kwala (Kuala) Lumpur in many directions: namely, Kanching, Ulu Selangor, Ulu Bernam, Ulu Gombah, Ulu Klang, Ulu Langat, Sungie Puteh, Recko, Kajang, and intermediate places (Daly, 1882: 394). Without sufficient draughtsman and instruments, Daly was forced to make a sketch survey, according to Swettenham's personal observation of his work (Swettenham, 1875: 250). Therefore, even though he was an experienced surveyor who used to participate in one notable traverse survey in the Northern Territory of Australia, from Adelaide to Darwin, rigorous information could not still be expected from Daly‘s surveying.” (Er-Jian Yeh @ Durham University, 2011: |"Territorialising Colonial Environments: A Comparison of Colonial Sciences on Land Demarcation in Japanese Taiwan and British Malaya", m.s. 149).

Peta Klang-Langat 1879

Map of the Malaya Peninisula
Peta sekitar Rekoh, tahun 1879: ditanda sebagai “Recko (Tin)”, kawasan lombong bijih timah terawal di Ulu Langat: “This is the bottom portion of the map (See the map of Reference Code SP002097_1 for the top portion), compiled from Admiralty Charts by officers of Her Majesty's Royal Engineer and Artillery Services and Royal Navy, and civil officers in the native states (for) Sir William Cleaver Francis Robinson, Governor of The Straits Settlements.” (|Map of The Malaya Peninisula, 1879 @ National Archives of Singapore).

Peta sekitar Sungai Klang, termasuk Sungai Langat
Peta sekitar Sungai Klang, termasuk Sungai Langat, tahun 1879. “Recko (Tin)” turut ditandakan (Yusrin Faidz Yusoff, 18 August 2018: |"What is the meaning of the place named "Damansara"?").

1879-05-29: Lawatan Sultan Selangor


Pada 29 Mei 1879, Sultan Selangor dengan diiringi dua putera baginda serta H.C. Syers, pegawai superintenden polis British, melawat beberapa kawasan di pedalaman daerah Ulu Langat, termasuk Kajang dan Rekoh. Antara lain H.C. Syers melaporkan: sepanjang Sungai Langat dari Ulu Langat ke Rekoh, yang asalnya hutan belantara, telah pun diterokai dan ditanam padi dengan pesatnya, kebanyakannya oleh para peneroka dari Sumatera. Lombong bijih timah kelolaan para pemodal Cina pula sedang menghadapi masalah kewangan yang serius:-

“While staying at Ulu Langat I occupied my time by trying to find out the area of land under cultivation but it would be quite impossible to do so without surveying the whole country. There is no doubts a much larger extent of land now under cultivation than there was in 1876-7. Both banks of the Langat river between Ulu Langat and Reckoo is now cultivated though in a very rude manner. This land two years ago was all jungles. The present occupants are nearly all arrived from Sumatra. They lease a piece of land, plant it with paddy, and after reaping their crop, desert the place, seldom attempting to obtain crops from the same land two years in succession.

Probably if some restrictions were made about the clearing of fresh land these people would not desert their clearings after one year's planting but it is a matter or consideration whether the land they occupy would be worth troubling about.

After the Sultan had completed his stay at Ulu Langat we went out by boat to Kadjang and Reckoo. Nothing of importance occuring at either place except the burning of a Chinese mining congsee at the former. The origin of the fire was unknown.

The Sultan several times expressed satisfaction at the manner in which the Goverment of his country was being carried out and pointed out to his son the benefits they had derived from the Residential system. Rajah Kahar appeared to thoroughly appreciate what was said by his father, but the heir apparent Rajah Moosah evidently hates all Europeans and does not attempt to disguise his hatred, his manner at times being very offensive.

Having spent a week at Kajang and Reckoo we procured boats and returned to Langat.

During my stay in the interior I had several opportunities of visiting the Chinese mining communities and enquiring from them, their views of the present state of the tin trade. They all say that while tin remains at its present price they will be able to work it at considerable profit, but the whole of the mining Tow Kays are as hopelessly bankrupt that there is not the slightest chance of increased production, unless new capital is introduced into the country.

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 29/05/1879: |"H.H. THE SULTAN'S VISIT TO THE INTERIOR").

Sultan Abdul Samad Ibni Almarhum Raja Abdullah, 1890-anTunku Abdul Kahar [Tahir]
CATATAN: Sultan Selangor ketika ini ialah Sultan Abdul Samad Ibni Almarhum Raja Abdullah (memerintah 1857-1898, Gambar kiri: Wikipedia)). Dua putera beliau yang mengiringi beliau ialah Raja Kahar (Raja yang menjaga Kajang, Gambar kanan: Wangsa Mahkota Selangor, 19 Jan 2014: |"Y.A.M. Tunku Abdul Kahar [Tahir] ibni Almarhum Sultan Sir ‘Abdu’l Samad Shah") dan Raja Muda Musa (dilantik Yang Dipertua Majlis Mesyuarat Negeri, menggantikan Tengku Kudin, pada 1880, kemudiannya mangkat pada tahun 1884.) (SEKRETARIAT AKHBAR KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 2019: |"SEJARAH NEGERI SELANGOR").

1879-08-01: Suasana Perlombongan


Antara lain mengandungi notis berkenaan penguatkuasaan kawalan aktiviti berkaitan arak, candu dan judi, yang hanya dibenarkan di dalam kawasan perlombongan sahaja: “Menyatakan kepada sekalian orang2 surat pajak di dalam Rekoh dan Kajang dan Hulu Langat orang yang pajak ada dapat kuasa daripada kirunit(?) Selangor di dalam kampung2 nya iaitu di dalam Kampung Rekoh dan Kajang dan Hulu Langat bukan di dalam lombong atau di dalam kongsi orang(?). Jikalau ada orang di sana(?) tahu?kan orang masak arak atau candu atau main judi atau kadi barang2 di dalam lombong boleh ia pergi mengadu kepada mata2 stesyen(?) atau kala itu boleh ia pergi tangkap bawak kepada kita ? kita mintakan(?) adanya(?) . Tamat” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 01/08/1879: |"RELATIVE TO THE LOSS OF $100 ON THE PART OF THE LANGAT FARMER").

LATAR PERISTIWA: Candu di Tanah Melayu.

Ketika itu, setiap kawasan perlombongan diuruskan sepenuhnya oleh pengusaha sesebuah lombong secara autonomi, tanpa campur tangan pihak pentadbiran atau penguasa lain: “The situation of the mining areas, and the close organisation of the Chinese population meant that they lived in autonomous communities under their own leadership. The nucleus of the community was the mining kongsi. It might consist of half a dozen men sharing a hut near a small mine in a lonely jungle clearing, or it might be one of many large mines grouped round a thriving township, with a market, gambling-booth, shops, theatres and secret society lodges. The remoter miners lived outside all authority, regulating their own affairs; but in the large centres the miners were drawn together into a single community by a mesh of associations, of which the most important were the kin and territorial associations, the former based on membership of a surname group tracing descent from a common ancestor, and the latter based on common dialect or common place of origin in China. In modern Malaya both types of association perform ritual and welfare functions, building temples, maintaining cemeteries and providing burial insurance, acting as loan societies, providing social assistance and employment services, and providing and maintaining schools. It is likely that in the mining communities of the 1860s and 1870s they had much the same functions, except for the last; there were few children and these were probably privately taught.” (E. Sadka, December 1960: |"THE RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM IN THE PROTECTED MALAY STATES, 1874-1895", m.s.40).

Selain gejala sosial seperti kegiatan arak, candu, dan judi, kegiatan perlombongan besar-besaran di era Residen British turut mencemar kawasan pertanian yang berdekatan, khususnya perairan sawah padi: “tin mining activity, if it was sited in the same area as peasant agriculture,constituted an important disruptive influence on the latter, especially if the agriculture consisted of padi cultivation. The mining activity polluted streams and rivers watering the fields or diverted away water required to irrigate the fields . In its early years, however, mining development had generally taken place in areas located far from the traditional areas of peasant agriculture and damage to the cultivation had been minimised. After the establishment of residential rule, however, there was an increased scale of mining activity and considerable areas of peasant cultivation in the west coast states, both in the traditional as well as the new areas, were rapidly encroached upon. The administration, faced with the dilemma whether it should protect the interests of padi cultivation at the expense of its most important economic activity, was predictably slow to react.” (Lim Teck Ghee, November 1971: |"PEASANT AGRICULTURE IN COLONIAL MALAYA: Its Development in Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan and Pahang, 1874-1941", m.s.60).

1879-08-30: Balai Polis Rekoh


Lawatan kerja Pegawai Superintenden Polis Selangor, H.C. Syers, ke balai-balai polis di seluruh Selangor, termasuk balai polis Rekoh. Keadaannya ketika itu amat baik, malah lebih baik berbanding balai polis Kajang: “Visiting the Ulu Langat district, I inspected police station at Reckoo. Here there are six men and a Lance Corporal under Sergeant Mat Singapore. The station is a model of cleanliness and the Arms and Accoutrements are in perfect order. The station is large and affords good accomodation for Officers visiting. The only deficiency is a bath room and cook house. I gave orders for these to be made at once. The work to be performed by the police. At Kadjang a distance of three miles from Reckoo there is a station at which Corporal Rassol and four men are stationed. I found the Corporal had kept his men and their accoutrements in good order. The station is in a very tumble down state and will not stand more than three or four months longer.” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 30/08/1879: |"SUPT. OF POLICE'S REPORT ON THE POLICE IN THE INTERIOR").

CATATAN: Perihal Balai Polis Rekoh:-

  • Lawatan George Bellamy pada 20/10/1884: melaporkan keadaan jalan di kaki bukit menuju ke balai polis: “Inspecting the road to Reko, which is also in good order with the exception of about 50 feet over the swamp at the foot of Reko Police Station Hill which requires consolidating. The road up to the station is possibly about 1 mi 10?. for a short distance which avoids along detour or a zigzag which would materially increase the length of the road.” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 20/10/1884: |"HIS REPORT ON THE ROADS FROM ULU LANGAT TO RECKO AND FROM SAMONIEH TO BERANANG").

1882-11: Suasana Rekoh dan Kajang

“Dalam catatan pada November 1882 terdapat 30 kedai Melayu, 3 kedai Cina & di Rekoh ada 20 kedai Melayu, 4 kedai Cina. Kebanyakan kedai Melayu menjual beras, garam, bekalan makanan dan keperluan terutamanya untuk pekerja pelombong, ada juga kedai yang membeli bijih timah daripada pelombong kecil - kecilan dan mereka juga menjual barangan rotan yang dibekal daripada Orang Asli tempatan. (AR Selangor 1884).” (Faizal Zainal @ Selangor 10: |"Pasar Kajang - 1910").

1883-03-18: Lawatan J.P. Rodger dan H.C. Syers


J.P. Rodger, Chief Magistrate and Commissioner of Lands, Selangor, bersama H.C. Syers, Superintendent of Police, Selangor, telah membuat lawatan rasmi ke Kajang dan Rekoh. Menurut catatan mereka, Rekoh merupakan sebuah perkampungan di atas bukit (sekitar Kampung Sungai Tangkas kini). Balai Polis Rekoh (asalnya rumah seorang raja) terletak di tengah-tengahnya, dan dalam keadaan yang baik. Kampung ini pernah didiami lebih 100 buah keluarga, sebelum sebahagian besar (kebanyakannya orang Mandailing dan Kampar) berpindah setelah dikenakan cukai tanah. Jalan Kajang-Reko ketika itu didapati terabai, dan beberapa jambatan telah pun rosak. Berikut adalah catatan penuh mereka berkenaan Rekoh:-

  • J.P. Rodger: ”18th/ I had intended going to see Mr.Duncan today, but hearing that he was working at a distance of nearly eight miles from Cherass I decided to go to Recko instead. We went by Jibat, an apparently flourishing mining camp, about five miles from Kajang town from Recko, over a fairly good road. Recko is a pretty little village on a hill, the Police Station (a house bought, I believe, from some Malay Rajah) occupying a splendid position in the centre. I was sorry to find that many people had deserted their clearings between Kajang & Recko. The Sergeant at Recko told me that more than one hundred families had gone, in consequence (he said) of the ? Land Tax. I spoke to all the principal people at Recko, telling them that any one could occupy land free from rent for one year, & that we would give them a reasonable time in which to pay afterwards. This seemed to produce a good effect, & they all promised to try & bring the people back again. As far as I can learn few, if any, of them have yet left Selangor altogether. We returned to Kajang by the direct road only about 3 and a half miles in length, but the road was in such bad condition, the bridges being all broken, that we took nearly two hours to reach Kajang. Slept at Cherass. Sayd Jahya offers to contract for two thirds of road from Cherass to Pudu if you will give him specifications. We left Cherass at 6.30 A.M arriving at K.L. at 9.30. - J.P. Rodger“ (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 17/03/1883: |"ENCLOSING REPORT OF JOURNEY TO KAJANG").

    CATATAN: Syed Jahya / Yahya ialah (bakal?) Penghulu Cheras, dan ada memiliki tanah dan sebuah rumah di Kampung Rekoh. Rumah ini telah musnah dalam sebuah kebakaran beberapa tahun sebelum 1898.

    LATAR PERISTIWA: Perihal J.P. Rodger.
  • H.C. Syers: “4. On Sunday we went via Jibat to Reckoo and found the track in fair condition. There are a number of Chinese mining in this district and it ought to become very important when properly developed. At present there is a difficulty about getting coolies to work there. They like being nearer to Kwalla Lumpur where provisions are cheaper but I have no doubt that when the means of communication is improved this difficulty will disappear. 5. The station at Reckoo is in first rate repair and requires nothing but a little whitewash to make it tidy. The building will stand for three years without any further repairs. The Sergeant informed me that a number of Malays had left the district in consequence of their viability to pay the new land tax. They were principally Mandaling and Kampar men and have returned to Sumatra. I noticed several empty houses on the track between Reckoo and Kajang that were formerly occupied by paddy planters. 6. We returned to Kajang by the nearest route but it proved by no means the best. We were very nearly losing our ponies. The track is in a fearful state overgrown by jungle and full of bottomless swamps that render it dangerous for anything attempting to cross that way. Rajah Kahar seems to have done absolutely nothing to improve his district. The people would willingly make the roads passable if they were permitted by him to do so.” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 19/03/1883: |"REPORT ON HIS VISITING AT KAJANG ON THE 17TH INSTANT").

    LATAR PERISTIWA: Perihal H.C. Syers.

Kajang-S.Jebat/S.Reko-Rekoh-Kajang (Peta 1904)Kajang-S.Jebat/S.Reko-Rekoh-Kajang (Peta kini)
Gambaran kasar perjalanan mereka:-
Kiri: Berdasarkan peta tahun 1904 (bukan 1883, kerana di dalam simpanan kami, belum ada peta yang cukup terperinci untuk tahun-tahun sebelum itu) (Edinburgh Geographical Institute, 1904 @ Yale University Library - Digital Collections: |"Selangor, Federated Malay States, 1904 / John Bartholomew & Co ; W.T. Wood, chief draftman").
Kanan: Berdasarkan peta kini (Mapcarta).
Biru: Kajang - Sungai Jebat (Sungai Reko) - Rekoh (5 batu / 8 kilometer).
Merah: Rekoh - Kajang (3 batu / 5 kilometer).

1884-06-23: Jalan Ulu Langat-Reko


Projek pembinaan jalan yang menghubungkan di antara Ulu Langat dan Reko tergendala di Semenyih, disebabkan kesilapan dalam anggaran jarak keseluruhan, mengakibatkan kenaikan kos. Namun ianya terpaksa diteruskan, oleh kerana ia menghubungkan Semenyih dan Kajang, yang dianggap penting (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 23/06/1884 @ Arkib Negara Malaysia: |"WITH REFERENCE TO THE ROAD FROM ULU LANGAT TO REKO, ASKS FOR SANCTION TO EXCEED THE VOTE BY $7,000 APPROXIMATELY").

Jalan ini diselenggara oleh syarikat kontraktor Messrs Hill and Rathborne (Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR @ Arkib Negara Malaysia):-

Kontraktor ini turut terlibat dalam pembinaan landasan keretapi Selangor State Railway dan Sungei Ujong Railway:-

  • “Thomas Heslop Hill was a coffee planter from Ceylon. He would later form a partnership with Rathborne to form Hill & Rathborne. The company would be contracted to build roads, and supply wooden sleepers for the construction of the Selangor State Railway in 1883, and was involved in the construction of the Sungei Ujong Railway. Hill would go on to write Camping and Tramping in Malaya.” (Mahen Bala, July 22, 2020: |"1869—1874 The Johore Wooden Railway: A revised history").
  • ”…a firm by the name of Hill and Rathborne was granted a concession to construct and operate the 24 ¾ mile long line between Seremban and Port Dickson.Construction started in 1888 and it was completed in 1891. The name of the company set up to run this line was Sungai Ujong Railway Company Limited. The locomotive was aptly named Sungai Ujong and it was later sent to Selangor and was called FMSR 4. It was sold to a contractor in 1909.“ (Eric Lim, December 7, 2020: |"Federated Malay States Railway").

1884-07-04: Lawatan George Bellamy


Lawatan kerja Acting Collector & Magistrate, George (G.C.) Bellamy, ke beberapa lokasi di sekitar Kajang dan Ulu Langat, termasuk Reko. Ketika itu terdapat kira-kira 120 penghuni di situ, separuh daripadanya mencari peluang di lombong-lombong di sekitarnya: “Arrived at Recko about 9.30 & found every thing at Station in good order. The Campong, how ever, wants plenty of attention as the roads are much overgrown with weeds. Sergt. has applied to Inspector of Prisons for 3? Orang Salah. Campong seems a busy place & contains about 120 inhabitants half of whom are Chinese interested in the many mines in the neighbourhood.” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 04/07/1884: |"HIS OFFICIAL JOURNAL FOR JUNE 1884").

Beliau melawat Reko sekali lagi pada 20/10/1884, ketika membuat pemeriksaan terhadap keadaan jalan Ulu Langat-Rekoh dan Semenyih-Beranang. Kali ini antara lain beliau melaporkan keadaan jalan di Bukit Reko, iaitu lokasi Balai Polis Rekoh ketika itu: “Reached Sammonieh on our return at 12.15. and left again at 3. Inspecting the road to Reko, which is also in good order with the exception of about 50 feet over the swamp at the foot of Reko Police Station Hill which requires consolidating. The road up to the station is possibly about 1 mi 10?. for a short distance which avoids along detour or a zigzag which would materially increase the length of the road. The road made by the convicts under Mr. Syers direction, to Kajang is in very poor order it is very much over grown and several culverts require renewal. Reached Kajang at 5.30.” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 20/10/1884: |"HIS REPORT ON THE ROADS FROM ULU LANGAT TO RECKO AND FROM SAMONIEH TO BERANANG"; 20/10/1884: |"WITH REFERENCE TO THE UPKEEP OF THE ROADS FROM ULU LANGAT TO REKO AND SAMONIEH TO BERANANG A.E.1884").

LATAR PERISTIWA: Perihal G.C. Bellamy.

1884-07-10: Penerokaan Jalan Rekoh-Langat


Menyahut seruan Frank Swettenham, pasukan pemangku majistret Ulu Langat, Mr. George Bellamy, dengan dipandu oleh seorang orang asli, menjalankan satu ekspedisi mengesan jalan dari Rekoh ke Langat, dari Kampung Simpang Ampat (sekitar Kuala Sungai Semenyih): “I proceeded on Monday to Rekoh to endeavour to find a track from that place to Klang. I was informed that the track, a very bad one, began at Sempang Ampat, some miles down the river. I therefore obtained a sampan & started about 7 a.m. from Rekoh. About 2p.m. we reached Sempang, and having obtained a Sakei guide, went on towards Klang. The road being very bad for coolies we made but little progress and after four hours walking, having arrived at a Sakei hut, we were obliged to pass the night. It was necessary for me to be back at Kajang today, so I was obliged to retrace my steps yesterday to Rekoh. 2. I much regret I was unable to reach Klang, but the object of my errand was so far attained that I am able to report the existence of tracks which go from Sempang to K.Lumpur, Klang or more correctly Penkalen Batu, K. Labuh, and Bandar Langat, and judging from the country through which we passed, I do not think there would be very much difficulty in making bridle paths to supersede the existing Sakei tracks. The underwood is remarkably scanty consisting principally of attap bertam and a peculiar kind of thorny palm. There are no hills of any great height and although the Sakeis said the swamps were bad, yet we only encountered one that was at all formidable.” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 10/07/1884: |"RE HIS PROCEEDINGS TO REEKO TO ENDEAVOUR TO FIND A TRACK FROM THAT PLACE TO KLANG").
Ekspedisi Rekoh-Kampung Simpang Empat-Langat
Gambaran kasar ekspedisi penerokaan, dari Rekoh (bulatan merah di sebelah kanan sekali) jam 7 pagi. Mereka menaiki sampan (ditanda dengan garisan biru tua) ke bulatan kedua (Kampung Simpang Empat, jam 2 petang). Dari situ mereka berjalan menuju ke bulatan akhir (Kawasan Langat), dan bermalam di suatu lokasi yang tidak diketahui, sebelum pulang semula ke Rekoh (Berdasarkan peta Edinburgh Geographical Institute, 1904 @ Yale University Library - Digital Collections: |"Selangor, Federated Malay States, 1904 / John Bartholomew & Co ; W.T. Wood, chief draftman").

LATAR PERISTIWA: Jalan Rekoh-Telok Datok

1885-05-23: Pembersihan Sungai Langat


Projek pembersihan Sungai Langat untuk laluan trafik, bermula dari Rekoh ke hilirnya. Ketika ini Sungai Langat masih lagi merupakan jalan pengangkutan utama bagi kawasan pedalaman. Pada mulanya J.A.G. Campbell (majistret daerah Ulu Langat) meluluskan pembersihan dari Rekoh ke kawasan Kuala Labu dengan kos $1000 (di bawah tanggungan kedua-dua daerah Ulu dan Kuala Langat), pada 23 Mei 1885. Projek ini bakal dijalankan oleh seorang kontraktor bernama Haji Tahir. Namun setelah perbincangan yang agak panjang, pada 1 Ogos 1885 kos tersebut dikurangkan dari $1000 kepada $750, oleh sebab kekangan peruntukan kewangan oleh pihak pentadbiran British. Berikutan dengan itu, skop pembersihannya turut dikurangkan, pada mulanya dari Rekoh ke Kuala Semenyih, kemudian dilanjutkan sedikit, dari Rekoh ke Simpang Ampat. Menurut kontrak, kerja-kerja akan bermula pada 15 Ogos 1885 (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 23/05/1885: |"ABOUT HADJI TAHIR, UNDERTAKING A CONTRACT FOR CLEARING THE LANGAT RIVER FROM REKO; TO AS FAR AS IT REQUIRES CLEARING, DOWN STREAM").
Sungai Langat (Rekoh-Simpang Ampat)
Kawasan pembersihan Sungai Langat kini (Ditandakan dengan biru tua di dalam peta: di antara Rekoh dengan Kuala Semenyih dan Kampung Simpang Empat @ Mapcarta).

LATAR PERISTIWA: Perihal J.A.G. Campbell.

1885-10-01: Laporan Hasil Timah


Laporan majistret daerah Ulu Langat, J.A.G. Campbell. Selain melaporkan kerosakan Jalan Reko ketika itu, beliau turut melaporkan statistik hasil bijih timah bagi daerah tersebut (disusun semula mengikut jumlah hasil):-

Tin Return, October

Place Slabs Areas Approximate weight piculs Value per picul Approximate value in Revenue From where exported
Kajang 230 34 125 $5 $345 Kuala Langat
Ulu Langat 189 41 100 $5 $300 Kuala Langat
Reko 154 21 84 $5 $252 Kuala Langat
Semenyih 140 15 43 $5 $219 Kuala Langat
Cheras 64 - 35 $5 $105 Kuala Lumpur
Cheras 46 5 25 $5 $45 Kuala Langat

Ketika ini Reko masih lagi merupakan antara pengeluar hasil bijih timah yang utama di Ulu Langat, di bawah Kajang dan Ulu Langat.

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 01/10/1885: |"OFFICIAL JOURNAL FOR THE MONTH OF OCT. 1885").

LATAR PERISTIWA: Perihal J.A.G. Campbell.

1887-01-01: Penghulu Che Man


Perlantikan “Che Man” sebagai Penghulu Kajang & Reko, oleh Residen Selangor, melalui cap kuasa Sultan Selangor. Beliau menggantikan Raja Kahar, putera Sultan Abdul Samad, yang dikatakan tidak mempunyai rumah di kawasan ini, dan tidak pernah membuat lawatan sejak setahun setengah yang lalu. Che Man disebut sebagai seorang “anak negeri” yang disukai “orang dagang” dan masyarakat umumnya. Beliau juga dikatakan rakan rapat Raja Kahar. Latar perlantikan:-

  • 12/08/1886: Perlantikan beliau telah dicadangkan oleh J.A.G. Campbell (Majistret daerah Ulu Langat), atas dasar beliau sebagai anak negeri serta sahabat baik Raja Kahar: “I have the honour to request that a Penghulu be appointed for the Districts of Kajang & Reko. At present Raja Kahar is by name only Penghulu, & he has not visited this District now for over a year & a half. I would suggest that Inche Man, who is universally liked, by “Aurang Dagang” & everyone be appointed. He is an “Anak Negrie”, who? would make his appt all the more acceptable to the people of the country, & to the Sultan. As he is a relation of Rj. Kahars, & also a great friend of his, no opposition need be feared in that quarter. Raja Kahar has not even a house here; & any Rajas or Penghulus stopping in the village have to put up in the shops. - J.A.G. Campbell, Collector & Magistrate, Ulu Langat.” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 12/08/1886: |"ASKS THAT A PENGHULU BE APPOINTED FOR THE DISTRICT OF KAJANG & REKO").
  • 27/11/1886: Cadangan perlantikan telah dipersetujui oleh ahli Council negeri Selangor: “Extract from minutes of Council dated November 27th 1886: 6. An application is considered for the appointment of a Penghulu for the District of Kajang & Reko, forwarded by the Collector of U. Langat, who recommends Inche Man for the appointment, after consultation with the people of the districts concerned. Raja Kahar says that he knows Inche Man intimately & believes that he would prove a very efficient Penghulu. Resolved that Inche Man be appointed Penghulu of Reko & Kajang from January 1st 1887, on a monthly salary of $15.00.” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 24/09/1890: |"ASKS FOR THE APPOINTMENT OF PENGHULU OF KAJANG VICE CHE MAN").

Che Man seterusnya menjadi penghulu Kajang & Rekoh selama sekurang-kurangnya 6 tahun, berdasarkan beberapa rekod urusan beliau sehingga tahun 1892:-

LATAR PERISTIWA: Penghulu di Zaman Kolonial.

LATAR PERISTIWA: Perihal J.A.G. Campbell.

1891-02-06: Tanah Perkebunan Nagiah


Permohonan sebidang tanah perkebunan di Rekoh, untuk seseorang yang bernama “Nagiah” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 06/02/1891: |"FORWARDS APPLICATION FROM NAGIAT FOR 0A.2R.26P. OF LAND IN THE DISTRICT OF REKO").

1891-05-12: Jalan Reko-Sepang

Penerokaan Jalan Reko-Sepang ini melalui kawasan hutan yang tidak pernah diterokai, yang kemudiannya dikenali sebagai Hutan Simpan Bangi (1906), dan bakal menjadi kawasan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM - 1970) kini. Seterusnya melewati Bukit Tunggul (kini lokasi Bukit Unggul Golf Country Resort), sebelum merentas kawasan paya menuju Sepang.

LATAR PERISTIWA: Jalan Reko-Sepang.

1896-03: Pembukaan Ladang Kopi

Pada bulan Februari 1896, pemangku pegawai daerah Ulu Langat telah menerima permohonan pembukaan ladang kopi di sekitar Jalan Reko. Beliau turut mengesyorkan agar pihak kerajaan mewartakan keseluruhan kawasan tandus di situ sebagai tanah rizab perladangan: “The Acting D.O., Ulu Langat, writes: 'Several applications have been sent in for waste land on the right bank of the Langat River off the Rekoh Road. There seems little doubt that the land applied for together with a great extent of waste land south of the proposed Klang-Kanjang Road, forms part of an all but continuous alluvial plain which stretches down to join the Klang planting reserve on the side of the Langat Road; and if this should prove to be the case, it is greatly to be hoped that the Government will see its way to reserving the whole plain for coffee planters, as it is at present entirely waste, contains no mining land, and is the only portion of the district which is in the smallest degree suitable for a planting reserve.'” (The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (Weekly), 25 February 1896, Page 14: |"SELANGOR NOTES").

Pada bulan Mac 1896, penama-penama bagi permohonan ladang-ladang tersebut telah disiarkan, iaitu F.B. Hicks, E.B. Skinner, A.A. Allen, dan E.J. Allen (bakal membuka West Country Estate), G.F.S. dan M. Sidney Parry (bakal membuka Belmont Estate), dan Kindersley (bakal membuka Reko Hill dan Sungai Reko Estate, diikuti beberapa lagi ladang lain): “Regarding planting in Ulu Langat, Selangor, Mr. Skeat writes in his report: 'The outlook as regards the development of the district by European planters is, on the other hand, most encouraging, and it is greatly to be hoped that the present year will see coffee planting started in earnest on a large scale. Four applications for 320 acres each were received from Messrs. F.B. Hicks, E.B. Skinner, A.A. Allen, and E.J Allen, and two more applications, also for 320 acres each, from Messrs. G.F.S. and M. Sidney Parry, whilst a previous application from Messrs. Kindersley for 320 acres on the Rekoh Road has been granted. The land embraced by the first six applications is a tract upon the right geographical bank of the Langat River, in the neighbourhood of Merbau Tumbang and Bukit Tempurong. It forms the upper end of the broad alluvial flats which stretch, roughly speaking, from the Langat River at Rekoh to the Langat Road at Klang, and merge into the coffee reserve in Klang District. When it is once thoroughly drained and roaded, it should include an abundance of excellent coffee land from which selections cloud be made by intending planters, and it would therefore prove no small advantage if a continuous coffee reserve, running through the two districts, could be proclaimed by the Government.'” (The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (Weekly), 17 March 1896, Page 13: |"COFFEE PLANTING IN THE LANGAT DISTRICT").

Namun perkembangan perladangan kopi agak terencat disebabkan saingan kopi Brazil beberapa tahun selepasnya: “The promise in coffee planting led Malay and Chinese farmers to venture into Ulu Langat in the 1890s. In 1893, some Sumatran migrants experimented with the planting of Liberian coffee. A year later, a European planter was reported to be clearing 607ha of land (AR Selangor, 1893 and 1894). In 1896, Goh Ah Ngee, who was already active in Broga, embarked on coffee planting on a newly-acquired 130ha concession near Kajang (DOUL, 587/1896).

In December 1895, the Kindersley brothers of Inch Kenneth estate in Kajang put in an application for 130ha of land along Reko Road about 3km from Kajang town. This application was considered “of special importance” as it was reported that this locality was once both “populous and extensively cultivated”. Other European planters submitted six applications for 130ha each in the same locality. The hope placed on coffee was also boosted by the new railway line to Negeri Sembilan (ARUL, 1895). In 1896, several of the leading Chinese miners in the district applied for a total of 294ha of agricultural land (MRUL, June 1896). With the increased demand for land, land revenue more than doubled from $572 in April 1895 to $1,283 a year later. At the turn of the twentieth century, competition from Brazilian producers and diseases threatened to cripple the local coffee planting industry. Although it had yet to be replaced by rubber, coffee was vanishing from the scene. By the 1900s, only 13ha were alienated for its cultivation in the district.

(Sumber: Voon Phin Keong @ Malaysian Journal of Chinese Studies, Volume 2, No.2, 2013: |"Transforming the Development Frontier: Chinese Pioneers in the Ulu Langat District of Selangor, Malaysia", m.s.8-9).

Ladang kopi di Batu Cave Estate, Singapura, tahun 1899
Gambar hiasan: Ladang kopi di Batu Caves Estate, Selangor, tahun 1899 (RBG KEW, 12th February 2015: |"Coffee harvest at Batu Cave Estate, Singapore, 1899").

1896-10-17: Datoh Dagang Ali Mustapha


Permohon pelanjutan kontrak jawatan Datoh Dagang Jawa Rekoh, Ali Mustapha: ”… the term of probation of Ali Mustapha, the Javanese Datoh Dagang of Reko, expires on the 31st October. I recommend that he be given a further probationery period of six months, on the same salary, commencing from the 1st November. - District Officer, Ulu Langat.“ (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 17/10/1896: |"EXTENSION OF PERIOD OF PROBATION, OF ALI MUSTAPHA, DATOH DAGANG, REKO. RECOMMEND;").

Kontrak lanjutan ini berakhir pada 30 April 1897, dan mungkin tidak disambung lagi selepas itu: “As I am not altogether satisfied that his appointment has been justified by results I recommend that he be employed on his present salary until the end of the current year when, if more satisfactory progress is not shown, his employment can be discontinued.” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 01/06/1897: |"EMPLOYMENT OF ALI MUSTAPHA, DATOH DAGANG OF REKO").

1897-01-22: Pembinaan Jalan Keretapi


Pembinaan jalan keretapi mula dijalankan di sekitar Rekoh. Seorang pemilik sebidang tanah di situ, A. Ramasamy Mudeliar, membuat aduan menyatakan tanahnya dicerobohi dalam proses pembinaan ini: “That the portion of land … contains 7 acres and 55 poles in Reko road Ulu Langat District which I bought on 20th July 1896 for $350-00. In which there were 1 bullock sheds and two houses. Now the Railway Department has taken that lot without settling with me. … Again they set fire to those sheds & houses and they are now erecting some buildings for the railway purpose. - A. Ramasamy Mudeliar” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 22/01/1897: |"COMPENSATION FOR HIS LAND ON REKO ROAD WHICH HAS BEEN RESUMED FOR RAILWAY PURPOSES").

LATAR PERISTIWA: Landasan Keretapi Rekoh-Bangi

1897-03-26: Penutupan Balai Polis Rekoh


Bangunan Balai Polis Rekoh tidak lagi digunakan oleh pihak polis, lalu bakal disewakan kepada M. Sydney Perry, pengurus Belmont Estate ketika itu (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 26/03/1897 @ Arkib Negara Malaysia: |"LEASE OF THE REKO POLICE STATION BUILDING TO MR. M.S. PARRY OF BELMONT ESTATE").

Akhir 1890-an: Kemerosotan Hasil Bijih Timah

“Although the upper Semenyih valley was believed to be rich in tin, it was only in the later part of the nineteenth century, following the accelerated tempo of activity in many parts of the west coast, that mining began and ushered in radical change. Much was due to a group of enterprising pioneers some of whom had already found success elsewhere in the state. The district became a hive of mining activity in the mid-1890s. From $25 in early 1895, the mining revenue of Ulu Langat district reached $717 a year later. Tin was first exported from the district in 1895 (DOUL, 677/1895). Expecting a “mining boom”, Chinese poured into every part of the district and many applications were received in 1896 for mining in the upper Semenyih valley (DOUL, 587/1896; MRUL, January 1896).

Loke Yew was granted 40ha of mining land at Sungei Merbau in Ulu Langat in February 1896 (MRUL, February 1896). In 1897, he began mining in the outskirts of Kajang with 180 workers. He then ventured into Sungei Kachau in the upper Semenyih valley in 1898 with 100 workers to work on a 40ha concession (MRUL, August 1898).

Tin mining stimulated the development of land transport. … In Ulu Langat district, a cartroad of 24km was built from Kuala Lumpur to Kajang in 1888, and extended to Semenyih, 11km to the south, in 1889; a bridle path continued southwards to Beranang in 1890 (AR Selangor, 1890). The 1890s saw short extensions of branch cart and bridle roads from Semenyih to Bangi in the southwest, Broga in the east and Kachau village in Ulu Semenyih in the northeast.

Despite the prospects of the tin mining industry, it was soon realized that Ulu Langat district was nothing like the “Eldorados of Kuala Lumpur and Ulu Selangor districts” as “tin is everywhere too pockety” (DOUL, 587/1896). Patchy deposits in some localities were soon worked out and miners had to move elsewhere in the state (ARUL, 1897).”

(Sumber: Voon Phin Keong @ Malaysian Journal of Chinese Studies, Volume 2, No.2, 2013: |"Transforming the Development Frontier: Chinese Pioneers in the Ulu Langat District of Selangor, Malaysia", m.s.7-8).

Location of mines in Hulu Langat.
Reko masih ditandakan sebagai antara kawasan lombong di sekitar Hulu Langat: “Location of mines in Hulu Langat.” - SBRAS, 1898. (Kajang Heritage Centre乌鲁冷岳社区文物馆, 21 April 2020: |"Kajang, a Tin Mining Town").

1898-06-20: Kampung Rekoh


Suatu tinjauan dan bancian semula di Kampung Reko, untuk tujuan pengeluaran semula geran-geran pemilikan tanah penduduknya ketika itu, yang telah lama tidak terurus. Geran-geran tanah yang pernah dikeluarkan di antara 1883-1889 semuanya telah terbatal, berikutan kematian atau penghijrahan pemegang gerannya. Menurut laporan tinjauan, suatu kebakaran yang agak besar pernah berlaku beberapa tahun sebelum ini. Antara yang musnah di dalam kebakaran ini ialah rumah Syed Jahya / Yahya (Penghulu Cheras) dan Anjong bin Amat (yang turut memiliki 6 lot tanah di sini). Berikut adalah hasil tinjauan serta pelan tanah yang dilakarkan.

Pelan tanah Kampung Reko, 1898
Pelan tanah Kampung Reko, 1898.

Section Lot Claimant Nature of Title Recommendation
I 2 Ali Mustapha (formerly acting as Datoh Dagang of Reko) This land appears to have been granted originally to Pongoh bin Sutan under Permit 53 of 1883. Ali Mustapha bought Pongoh's interest in the land, and a Temporary License was issued to him in 1895. Rent paid up to date. Issue Grant to Ali Mustapha: no premium, rent $1/- per annum.
3 Syed Jahya (Penghulu of Cheras) - no title, but Syed Jahya appears to have held the land for very many years: formerly built on, but the house was destroyed by fire some years ago; no record of any rent having ever been paid. Issue Grant to Syed Jahya: no premium, rent $1/- per annum.
5 Anjong bin Amat - Temporary License Formerly contained a house, since destroyed by fire. - Issue Grant no premium, rent $1/- per annum.
6 Sulop Temporary License. Appears to have been held originally under Agreement 71/84, since cancelled by Notification in the Gazette. do
II 1 Anjong bin Amat Temporary License Issue Grant to Anjong; no premium rent $1/0 per annum.
2 Anjong bin Amat do do
3 Anjong bin Amat do do
6 Saleh Temporary License Issue Grant to Saleh; no premium, rent $1/- per annum.
7 Anjong bin Amat do Issue Grant to Anjong; no premium, rent $1/- per annum.
8 Anjong bin Amat do do

Hasil tinjauan ini turut menemui 2 buah rumah yang terletak di tebing Sungai Langat, milik Ja Pahlawan (sebelumnya Haji Daud) dan Haji Abdullah. Mereka akan ditawarkan lot kosong di dalam pelan, tetapi dibenarkan terus mendiami rumah-rumah sedia ada tersebut: “There are, however, two houses, built close to the river bank, upon land which it is not advisable to alienate under Grant. They are owned respectively by Ja Pahlawan (former Agreement 39/85 in name of Haji Daud) and Haji Abdullah. I propose to allow each of these parties to select one of the vacant lots in Sections 1 and 2, and to issue Grants on the terms proposed in other cases. They can continue, should they so wish, to occupy their present sites under Temporary Licenses, until the existing houses disappear.”

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 20/06/1898: |"REKO VILLAGE SETTLEMENT").

Kemungkinan lokasi Kampung Reko, kiniKemungkinan lokasi Kampung Reko, kini
Kiri: Kemungkinan lokasi Kampung Reko kini (bulatan merah), di sempadan selatan Reko Hill Estate (garis putus hijau - ketika itu belum wujud lagi, bakal dibuka 1904).
Kanan: Kemungkinan kawasan pelan tanah, kini.

Kuala Lumpur, 1890 - Image of Kampung Rawa
Gambar hiasan: Perkampungan Mandailing-Rawa di Kuala Lumpur, tahun 1890. Kemungkinan perkampungan Rekoh ketika itu juga begini: “Kuala Lumpur, 1890 - Image of Kampung Rawa, the Mandailing-Rawa settlement that formed the core area of old KL at the southern end of Batu Road, on the western bank of the Klang River.” (Vijaya Kumar Ganapathy: "Kuala Lumpur, 1890 - Image of Kampung Rawa").

1896-1900: Permulaan Era Getah

Tanaman getah komersial terawal dirintis oleh pasangan adik-beradik Kindersley atas cadangan H.N. Ridley pada tahun 1896 di ladang Inch Kenneth, Kajang. Kejayaan ini menjadi galakan kepada mereka serta pengusaha lain untuk membuka ladang-ladang getah di sekitar Kajang (Balgownie, Paradise), Rekoh (West Country, Belmont), dan Bangi (Bangi Estate): “The original purpose of the Kindersley brothers was to open coffee estates (free of the restriction to 250 acres in the Klang valley), but in 1896 H. N. Ridley, Curator of the Botanic Gardens in Singapore, supplied them with rubber seedlings to plant an experimental 5 acres on Inch Kenneth estate, near Kajang. They are generally credited with being the first to plant rubber on a commercial scale in Malaya. The collapse of the coffee industry in 1899 brought the Kindersleys to the brink of ruin but these dogged Scotsmen survived the crisis and went on to become prominent in the new industry. One of them, R. C. M. Kindersley, was an unofficial member of the FMS Federal Council in the 1920s. The example of the Kindersleys led to the creation of a group of estates, mostly within a mile or two of the railhead (1897) at Kajang. The Kindersleys owned Balgownie, Inch Kenneth, and Bangi estates. In 1898 Lau Boon Tit opened Semenyih estate, which was later acquired by the Asiatic Rubber Produce Company. Lau 'went for broke' in planting 54 acres of rubber in 1898. A few years later, the FMS Rubber Co. owned West Country, Belmont, and Ayer Hitam estates, and E. V. Carey, chairman of the Selangor Planters' Association, opened Paradise estate. Thus, for the first time, Ulu Langat became a flourishing 'planting district'. It was a turning point.” (J.M. Gullick, 2007: |"A Short History of Ulu Langat to 1900"), m.s. 16-17).

Menjelang 1900-an, Kajang dan Rekoh telah menjadi antara kawasan ladang getah terawal di Selangor, didominasi oleh peladang Eropah secara kolektif: “Significantly, the earliest systematic planting of rubber in Selangor took place in 1895 in Ulu Langat district itself. This was the experiment of the Kindersley brothers who planted 2ha in their Inch Kenneth coffee estate near Kajang. … Once the economic potentials of rubber had been proven, and having gained experience in coffee cultivation, European planters were quick to seize the opportunities offered by the new crop. Commercial production of rubber also marked the beginning of domination of European enterprise over Asian smallholders. There were 30 European and 22 other rubber estates in Ulu Langat district in 1908 (MRUL, May 1908; DOUL, 92/1908). European planters formed the Kajang Branch of the Planters' Association in May 1912 to further their interests and organized a social club in June to strengthen ties among each other (MRUL, July 1912, SSF, 112/1912).” (Voon Phin Keong @ Malaysian Journal of Chinese Studies, Volume 2, No.2, 2013: |"Transforming the Development Frontier: Chinese Pioneers in the Ulu Langat District of Selangor, Malaysia", m.s.9).


Gambar hiasan: Pekerja ladang getah awal, di sekitar Selangor. Kiri: Tamil coolies in Rubber Estate, Selangor, F.M.S.” (M.S. Nakajima, 1910 @ Faizal Zainal, Selangor 10, 9 Oktober 2019: |"Foto Selangor Zaman Dulu - Dulu"). Kanan: Faizal Zainal @ Selangor 10, 10 Januari 2020: |"Ladang Getah Pertama".

“Ladang getah pertama di Selangor dan di negara ini bermula di Kajang pada tahun 1896 apabila peladang dan usahawan berbangsa Scotland R.C.M Kindersley menanam seluas 5 ekar pokok getah di kawasan ladang kopi milik beliau di Inch Kenneth Coffee Estates Kajang selepas memperolehi anak - anak pohon getah dan juga mendapat panduan dan dorongan daripada Bapa Getah Tanah Melayu Henry Ridley (Director Singapore Botanical Garden).

Pada 1904 Inch Kenneth Rubber Estates di tubuhkan di Edinburg dan pada 1910 Kajang Rubber Estates ditubuhkan mengabungkan beberapa ladang getah di sekitar Kajang - Bangi untuk pengurusan ladang komersial secara besar - besaran.
Tayar kereta di New York dan London, getahnya di toreh di Kajang dengan gaji 50 sen sehari.”

(Sumber: Faizal Zainal @ Selangor 10, 10 Januari 2020: |"Ladang Getah Pertama").

LATAR PERISTIWA: Perladangan Kindersley.

The Financial Times Map Showing The Position of The Rubber Estates in British Malaya
Pada tahun 1910-an, kawasan Bangi-Reko-Kajang-Semenyih adalah antara kawasan ladang-ladang getah utama di Selangor: “This map of Malaya shows the rubber estates with the names of the rubber estate companies and the number of their estates tabulated, British Territories of Pulau Pinang, (Province) Wellesley, Dindings, Malacca and Singapore, Federated Malay States of Negri Sembilan, Selangor, Perak and Pahang under British Protection, other Malay States of Johore, Kelantan, Trengganu, Kedah and Perlis under British Protection, towns, rivers, islands, railways in operation, proposed railways, railway stations, George Town, Port Weld, Taiping, Ipoh, Kulala Lumpur, Port Swettenham, Seremban, Malacca Town, Johore (Bahru), Singapore City, Pekan, Kuantan, Kuala Trengganu, Khota Bahru (Kota Bharu), Sungei Perak, Sungei Benam, Sungei Klang, Sungei Muar, Sungei Batu Pahat, Sungei Johore, Sungei Endau, Sungei Pahang, Sungei Kelantan, Pulau Tioman, and others.” (G.J. Richardson Co., 1910 @ National Archives of Singapore: |"The Financial Times Map Showing The Position of The Rubber Estates in British Malaya").

1900-05-05: Pampasan Tanah Landasan


Rayuan oleh Andrishamy, seorang pemilik tanah di sekitar Kajang-Rekoh, agar pihak British memberikan pampasan yang lebih setimpal dengan keluasan tanah beliau yang telah diambil alih untuk tujuan pembinaan Landasan Keretapi Rekoh-Bangi: “…Petitioner had been a resident of this State for about 9 years and laid his small savings on lands in Kajang with the hope of bettering his prospects and settling here. … he also laid a sum of money on a piece of land in extent 4 1/2 acres situated on the Reko Road. About 5 years ago the Public Works Department took over a portion of the Petitioner's land for the purpose of constructing a road and paid Petitioner a compensation of ($35/-) Dollars Thirty five only. That during this year the Railway Department took over another portion of the Petitioner's land for the Seremban Extension of the Railway. Thus the Petitioner's land has been divided into several pieces. The Petitioner was given a sum of ($20/-) Dollars Twenty only … the Railway taking 100 feet on both sides of the line in addition to the land already taken there only remains two strips of land one between the Public Road and Railway line and the other on the off side of the Railway line. … the Petitioner can in no way utilize these two strips of land … before the Railway took the portion what they required, an offer of ($100/-) Dollars One hundred was made. Lands out here are rising in price from time to time…

Menurut Pegawai Daerah Ulu Langat yang mengajukan perkara ini, J.R.O. Aldworth, tanah tersebut agak terbiar, dan Andrishamy telah pun bersetuju secara bertulis dengan pampasan awal ($20), tetapi kali ini memohon pampasan yang lebih setimpal: “In 1896 petitioner acquired from the State 4 1/2 acres of land fronting on the Reko Road, immediately outside the present extended town limits. … At the end of last year … a strip of lane 200 feet wide for railway purposes and I awarded to petitioner the sum of $20/-; this I considered very liberal, he lost only 3 roods of lalang land on which were 7 areca nuts and one small coconut, all in a neglected condition. What I took most into consideration in awarding the compensation, which was paid on 12th February, 1900, was the severance of the land. … The petitioner has no legal right to have his case further considered as he accepted my award of $20/-”

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 05/05/1900: |"AUDRIS HAMY'S PETITION RE LAND OFF THE REKO ROAD RESUMED FOR RAILWAY PURPOSES").

LATAR PERISTIWA: Landasan Keretapi Rekoh-Bangi.

LATAR PERISTIWA: Perihal J.R.O. Aldworth.

1900-06-02: Kuari Landasan Keretapi


Pewartaan tanah rizab kuari di Reko, untuk tujuan pembinaan landasan keretapi yang menghubungkan Kajang dan Bangi (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 02/06/1900: |"NOTICE OF RESERVATION OF LAND FOR A RAILWAY QUARRY AT REKO").

LATAR PERISTIWA: Landasan Keretapi Rekoh-Bangi.

1902-10-30: Jambatan Besi di Jalan Reko

Pembinaan jambatan besi di Jalan Reko: “…recommending that the sum of $2659.68 be expended in purchasing two twenty feet span iron bridges from the Factory for the Sungei Lallang and Reko Roads.” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 30/10/1902: |"TWO TWENTY FEET SPAN BRIDGES FOR SUNGEI LALLANG AND REKO ROADS").

1903-04-16: Perolehan Tanah Landasan


Beberapa bidang tanah di sekitar Kajang diambil alih oleh kerajaan untuk tujuan penyelenggaraan landasan keretapi Kajang-Bangi. Antara penama-penama tanah ini ialah Ali Mustapha, Pongoh bin Sutan, dan Ja Pahlawan, yang ada memiliki tanah di Kampung Reko (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 16/04/1903: |"Lands and Reserves, F.M.S. Rlys").

LATAR PERISTIWA: Landasan Keretapi Rekoh-Bangi.

1905-1906: Perlombongan di Sungei Pajak

Tidak pasti lokasinya di mana. Rekod permohonan lesen perlombongan bijih timah di sini:-

1906-11-05: The Bangi Rubber and Tin Properties

Pendaftaran Syarikat The Bangi Rubber and Tin Properties, bagi memperolehi tanah kerajaan negeri Selangor seluas 705 ekar di sekitar Rekoh, untuk tujuan perladangan getah (Kajang Rubber Estates) serta perlombongan bijih timah (The Straits Times, 5 November 1906, Page 7: |"New Rubber Company"; The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 6 May 1907, Page 7: |"Page 7 Advertisements Column 1").

CATATAN: Ladang di Rekoh ini pernah dilengkapi dengan sebuah hospital, namun ianya ditutup setelah Hospital Kajang dibuka untuk seluruh warga terdekat (mungkin setelah bangunan barunya siap dibina pada tahun 1910 (Hospital Kajang, 2016: |"Sejarah")). Ladang Bangi Rubber kemudiannya bergabung dengan Ladang Balgownie, kemungkinan sekitar tahun 1908-1909 (The London Gazette, December 1, 1908: |"JOINT STOCK COMPANIES").

Poskad: TIN MINING, CHERAS, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA, 1910Poskad: TIN MINING, CHERAS, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA, 1910 (Belakang)
Para pekerja sedang menggali tanah permukaan lombong bijih timah di Cheras, 1910. Kemungkinan lombong-lombong di Rekoh juga begini (Federal Rubber Stamp Co., Kuala Lumpur, 1910 @ Worthpoint: |"TIN MINING, CHERAS, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA, 1910").

1911-05-10: Tapak Cadangan Padang Golf


Cadangan padang golf seluas 30 ekar di sekitar Reko: “a proposal is now under consideration by the European Residents in UlU Langat district for the formation of a new Golf Course with Club House - stables etc just 2 1/2 miles out of Kajang on the Reko road. … The proposed site is a block of about 30 acres of undulating land at present forming part of the Kajang Rubber Companys property…” (SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 10/5/1911: |"LAND FOR THE PROPOSED NEW GOLF COURSE WITH CLUB HOUSE &C AT 2? MILES REKO ROAD, ULU LANGAT").

1912-07-08: Hospital Reko

Hospital Reko diasaskan.

LATAR PERISTIWA: Hospital Reko.

Peta Rekoh 1920-an dan Kini

Kawasan Rekoh, 1920-anKawasan Rekoh, kini
Kiri: Kawasan Rekoh, 1920-an. (Survey Department, Singapore, 1927 @ National Archives of Singapore: |"Parts of Seremban and Jelebu Districts with portions of Ulu Langat and Kuala Langat Districts (Selangor), Kajang, Negri Sembilan").
Kanan: Kawasan Rekoh kini (Google Maps).

Petunjuk Peta (1920-an) Kawasan yang sama kini
Sungai Reko Estate
Sungai Reko Estate. Sempadan selatannya sepanjang Sungai Reko.

Kajang 2, Kajang Villa, Tropicana Heights, Rafflesia International School, Taman Anggerik Emas.
Reko Hill Estate
Reko Hill Estate. Muara Sungai Reko di sebelah selatannya.

Bandar Baru Bangi Seksyen 5, SJK(T) Ladang West Country Timur, SMK Jalan Reko, Taman Tenaga, Taman Langat Jaya, Pusat Hentian Kajang, Taman Perindustrian Kajang.

1924-02-15: Perlombongan di Lembah Reko

Permohonan untuk perlombongan di Lembah Reko seluas 186 ekar, oleh Messrs A.H. Elowerdew and E.W. Tyler (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 15/02/1924: |"PROSPECTING LICENSE OVER 186 ACRES OF STATE LANDS, REKO VALLEY, KAJANG - APPLICATION FROM MESSRS. A.H. ELOWERDEW AND E.W. TYLER FOR").

Perkembangan Kajang dan Peminggiran Rekoh

Menjelang 1900-an, pekan terdekat dengan kawasan Rekoh, Kajang, mula berkembang pesat sebagai pusat ekonomi serta pentadbiran British bagi kawasan selatan Selangor. Hal ini menyebabkan Rekoh mulai terpinggir dan akhirnya menjadi sebahagian daripada ladang-ladang estet yang dibuka besar-besaran ketika itu, untuk tujuan tanaman kopi dan kemudiannya getah. Pekan dan perkampungan Rekoh beransur lenyap dan semakin dilupakan, sehingga tiada kesannya lagi kini:-

  • Tin mining and rubber cultivation led to the establishment of Kajang town. In 1850s, first tin mine in Hulu Langat District was at Rekoh. In 1868, Towkay Chin Ah Chan was offered by Sultan Abdul Samad to open tin mine in Bukit Arang. The Mandailing migrants from Sumatra were the pioneers in opening up forest land in and around Kajang. Chinese and India migrants moved into Kajang in the 1870s as labourers and traders. 1884 census report of Kajang Town recorded 60 inhabitants, consisted of 19 Chinese, 1 Indian and 40 Sumatrans. In 1890s, British planters started coffee cultivation in Kajang. However, it failed due to disease infection. In 1895, Kindersly Brothers started planting rubber and were successful. At the same time, the first batch of brick shophouses was built. In the early 20th century, Kajang had developed into a commercial and administrative centre in Southern Selangor.” (Lee Kim Sin @ Selangor.Travel, October 19, 2019: |"A brief History of Kajang via the Kajang Heritage Walk").
  • “Pada November 1882 pusat utama di Hulu Langat ialah Rekoh yang mempunyai empat buah kedai Cina dan 20 kedai Melayu, dan Kajang dengan 3 atau 4 buah kedai Cina dan 30 buah kedai Melayu. Kira-kira 900 orang pula bekerja di lombong bijih berhampiran Rekoh (mungkin di kampung Sungai Tangkas yang masih wujud pada masa kini). Bagaimanapun selepas itu, Kajang lebih diberi perhatian dan dijadikan pusat pentadbiran daerah. Sekolah Inggeris dan Melayu dibina di Kajang, bukan di Rekoh. Begitu juga hospital dan pejabat-pejabat kerajaan yang lain. Rekoh akhirnya mengalami kemerosotan dan “lenyap”.” (Andin Salleh, July 18, 2013: |"Pekan Rekoh yang sudah lenyap").

Gambar hiasan: Pasar Kajang - 1910Gambar hiasan: Pasar Kajang - 1910 (colorized)
“Salah satu koleksi foto poskad M.S.Nakajima: Suasana di Pasar Melayu, Kajang,Selangor sekitar tahun 1910. M.S.Nakajima antara jurufoto Jepun yang awal bertapak di Kuala Lumpur yang merakam foto-foto sebagai poskad di Tanah Melayu dan Singapura. Poskad ini pernah di siarkan di E-bay dan sudah pun terjual. Rujukan : Worth point.” (Izmal Karim, 11 September 2018: "Poskad & Sejarah : Suasana di Pasar Melayu, Kajang – 1910s". Diwarnakan semula oleh: Faizal Zainal @ Selangor 10: |"Pasar Kajang - 1910").

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rekoh.txt · Last modified: 2021/10/16 02:31 by sazli