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sejarahbangi-1970-1979

Keratan Akhbar Berkaitan Bangi: 1970-1979

1970-01-26: Masjid Kg Batu 3 Jln Bangi

Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Lembaga Kemajuan Kampung Batu 3 Jalan Bangi, En. Alias Pensil memohon bantuan dana pembinaan masjid baru untuk kampung itu, yang telah uzur dan tidak dapat menampung pertambahan penduduk kampung.

NOTA: Bangunan lama masjid ini telah dibina pada tahun 1959.

Masjid Kg Batu 3 Jln Bangi, 1970Masjid Kg Batu 3 Jln Bangi (2013)
Kiri: Gambar bangunan lama masjid (1970). Kanan: Gambar bangunan baru masjid (Jabatan Agama Islam Selangor, 2013).

1970-02-16: Padi 2 Kali Setahun

Jabatan Pertanian Daerah Ulu Langat giat memperkenalkan penanaman padi dua kali setahun. Urutan peristiwa:-

  • 1963: Percubaan pertama di mukim Beranang: 600 ekar.
  • 1964: Bertambah kepada 1,005 ekar.
  • 1965: Dibatalkan atas sebab kemarau.
  • 1966: Keluasan meningkat kepada 1,150 ekar.
  • 1970: Percubaan kedua: kawasan seluas 1,100 ekar, 250 ekar daripadanya di Kampung Batu 3 Jalan Bangi, diusahakan oleh 100 orang warganya diketuai oleh pengerusi jawatankuasa kampung, En. Alias Pensil.

Kunci air di Kg Batu Tiga, Jalan BangiAlias Pensil

1970-05-18: Penubuhan UKM

UKM ditubuhkan pada 18 Mei 1970, dan kampusnya ketika itu di Jalan Pantai, Kuala Lumpur, bersebelahan dengan Universiti Malaya (UM). Canselornya yang pertama ialah Tun Abdul Razak: “Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia telah ditubuhkan secara rasminya pada 18 Mei 1970, dan ianya beroperasi dalam bulan yang sama di kampus sementaranya, iaitu di Maktab Perguruan Persekutuan di Lembah Pantai. Penggunaan premis tersebut dilakukan setelah 80 orang pelatih tahun dua maktab berkenaan dipindahkan ke Maktab Perguruan Temenggong Ibrahim, Johor Bharu.”

Bangunan Perpustakaan Universiti di Jalan Pantai Baru

(Sumber: Harith Faruqi Sidek @ Kitab Tawarikh 2.0, October 10, 2012: |"Penubuhan UKM: Pencarian Kakitangan Perintis...").

1971-01-13: Sekolah Sg Kembong Ditutup

Sekolah Kebangsaan Sungai Kembong Bangi ditutup selamanya, atas arahan Pejabat Pelajaran Selangor.

1972-01-19: Pengumuman Kampus UKM Bangi

Perdana menteri, Tun Abdul Razak, mengumumkan tapak rancangan Universiti Kebangsaan di Bangi, seluas 2,300 ekar. Menteri Pendidikan ketika ini ialah Tun Hussein Onn. Antara faktor pilihan lokasi ialah jaraknya yang sederhana jauhnya dari kota Kuala Lumpur, agar ianya dapat membina identitinya sendiri. Kampung-kampung di sekelilingnya akan turut dibangunkan, namun tema pembangunannya harus kekal sebagai tempat kediaman atau perumahan.

NOTA: Ketika laporan akhbar ini disiarkan, 195 orang para graduan sulungnya (1971-1974) dalam Fakulti Sains, Sastera dan Pengajian Islam sedang dalam tahun kedua pembelajaran. (Dr Shafie Abu Bakar, May 28, 2014: |"UKM Di Era Canselor Tun Abdul Razak").

1974-01-07: Pembinaan UKM dan Bandar Baru Bangi

Daripada kenyataan-kenyataan tawaran pembekal khidmat dan perkakasan, serta laporan pertambahan perolehan tanah sebanyak 358 lot, tampaknya pembinaan UKM dan Bandar Baru Bangi berjalan dengan pesatnya sepanjang tahun 1974.

NOTA 1: Tapak UKM pada asalnya ialah Hutan Simpan Bangi (Bangi Forest Reserve):-

“Bangi Forest Reserve (Figures 1 and 2) is located in Selangor within the campus of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 35 km from Kuala Lumpur (2° 53’ N, 101° 52’ E). This forest has shrunk its size from 830 ha in early 1990’s (Ford and Davison 1995) to 500 ha in 1996 (Karim-Dakog et al. 1997) and 235 ha in 1997 (Ginny-Ng et al. 2005) and apparently only 100 ha is left at present. This forest has been logged a few times between 1942 and 1970s. In 1970s, this forest was given to the university for its campus. There were a series of road networks passes alongside the forest and recently, several new buildings have taken over some part of this forest from the last 830 ha remaining in 1990s. Hutan Pendidikan Alam (HPA) on the other hand is a new facility centre that has just been given to the Faculty of Science and Technology. This forest is located next to the oil palm plantation leased to the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB).”

Bangi Forest Reserve today
(Sumber: Farah Shafawati Mohd-Taib, Mariani Ramli, Norhayati Ahmad and Shukor Md-Nor, 2016: |"Species richness and turnover of birds in thirty years in the fragmented Bangi Forest Reserve, Selangor, Malaysia").

“The Bangi Forest Reserve (BFR) lies between 2° 54' N and 101° 4.5' E in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor Darul Ehsan, some 35 km south of Kuala Lumpur. This quartzite soft rock-based forest is bordered by the Langat river in the North and Kuala Lumpur-Seremban highway in the South. Topographically the area is moderately flat with several small streams and patches of swamps, at altitude of 40 m to 110 m above sea level. BFR received its status as a forest reserve on 31 December 1906 and was placed under strict jurisdiction Of the Selangor Forestry Department. Nevertheless unauthorized exploitation during the post World War II occurred and it was selectively logged during the Japanese occupation in 1942-1945 (Latiff 1981). It was again logged off for the second time in the late 1960's. The Japanese planted Palaquium gutta after the logging was completed as a source for “gutta perca”. In addition, native settlements were then allowed and Hevea brasiliensis trees Were subsequently planted on the fringes of this reserve. Prior to handing of this Reserve to the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) authorities in the 1970's, it had been the home of the Temuan community aborigines group.
Fig. 1: Aerial photograph of the Bangi Forest Reserve in 1970'sFig. 2: Map of Bangi Forest Reserve in 1970's showing the ecological research area (1). The section 2 and 3 are under very disturbed forests
Left: Fig. 1: Aerial photograph of the Bangi Forest Reserve in 1970's. Right: Fig. 2: Map of Bangi Forest Reserve in 1970's showing the ecological research area (1). The section 2 and 3 are under very disturbed forests

The original 881 ha BFR was classified into 832 ha of regenerating lowland forest, 31 ha Of fresh water swamps and 19 ha of rubber and Oil palm plantations (Fig. 1, 2). Most of these areas, especially plantation areas -and those near the main road, were developed to accommodate infra-Structures for the UKM campus facilities. Another 27 ha was later delineated for Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology (MINT) (then known as Pusat Penyelidikan Atom Tun Dr Ismail Or PUSPATI) and some 200 ha was leased to Palm Oil Research Institute Malaysia (PORIM) for oil palm plantation.”


(Sumber: Kamarudin Mat Salleh @ Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. (JTAS) Vol. 22 (2) Sep. 1999, m.s. 185-198: |"The Role and Function of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Permanent Forest Reserve in Research and Education").

NOTA 2: Hutan Simpan Bangi ini telah didiami oleh masyarakat Orang Asli Temuan, sejak akhir tahun 1950-an: “Pada akhir tahun 1950-an empat keluarga orang Temuan dari kampung orang Asli Bukit Dugang, Sepang telah membuka sebahagian kecil daripada kawasan hutan simpan Bangi yang sekarang menjadi tapak Universiti Kebagsaan Malaysia. Turut sama dalam pembukaan itu ialah Batin Yut anak Jenang Pilis yang sebelumnya menjadi ketua orang Asli di Bukit Dugang- Dialah yang mengetuai pembukaan kawasan hutan itu. …pada awal tahun 1970-an perkampungan Orang Temuan di Bangi yang bermula dengan empat keluarga itu telah berkembang menjadi 22 keluarga dan penduduknya kecil besar ada kira-kira 100 orang. Orang Asli yang berkenaan ada rumah, ada kerja, ada kebun getah dan pokok buah-buahan dan hidup pun agak senang. Mereka ingin terus menetap di tempat itu. Akan tetapi, nasib nampaknya tidak terus menyebelahi mereka. ” (Dr Mohamed Salleh Lamry, 2005: |"Mangsa Pembangunan: Orang Temuan di Sungai Buah dan Bukit Tunggul, Sepang, Selangor").

NOTA 3: Ketika pembinaan pesat UKM sepanjang tahun 1974 ini, masyarakat Temuan di sini telah dipindahkan oleh pihak kerajaan ke kawasan hutan di Sungai Buah dan Bukit Tunggu(l), berhampiran pekan Bangi (Lama). Namun pada tahun 1993, kawasan tersebut telah diambilalih pula oleh sebuah syarikat swasta untuk pembinaan padang golf. Nama kawasan tersebut juga telah diubah kepada Bukit Unggul Golf Country Resort (BUGCR).

Bukit Dugang - Bangi Forest Reserve (Mapcarta)
Perpindahan masyarakat Temuan, dari Hutan Simpan Bangi (Bangi Forest Reserve) di sebelah timur, ke Kampung Orang Asli Sungai Buah dan Bukit Tunggu(l) di selatan (kini Bukit Unggul Golf & Country Club). (Sumber peta: Mapcarta). Di sebelah barat adalah petempatan asal mereka di Bukit Dugang (Sumber peta: Mapcarta).

Sumber-sumber rujukan:-

NOTA 4: Sejarah perancangan dan pembangunan Bandar Baru Bangi:-

  • “Sejak tahun 1974, Bandar Baru Bangi telah dimajukan secara berperingkat-peringkat. Bandar Baru Bangi merangkumi kawasan seluas lebih kurang 2, 925 hektar (7, 228 ekar). Matlamat utama pembukaan Bandar ini ialah untuk menjadikan kawasan Bandar Baru Bangi sebagai satu pusat pertumbuhan wilayah bagi Selatan Lembah Klang dan seterusnya dijadikan Bandar Universiti dan juga pusat kajian sains.” (Lee Jun Seng, Lim Sook Yee, Livia binti Lahat, Low Yoke Yen @ UKM, 2006: |"KKKH 4543: Perancangan Pembangunan Bandar: Projek Kajian Lalulintas Bandar Baru Bangi, m.s.12)

  • “Pembangunan Bandar Baru Bangi dilaksanakan secara berperingkat-peringkat oleh Perbadanan dan agensi-agensi kerajaan atau swasta yang memiliki tanah di bandar ini berdasarkan keperluan masing-masing dan kedudukan kewangan mereka. Di peringkat awal pembangunan Bandar Baru Bangi, Jabatan Kemajuan Bandar Baru Bangi bertindak sebagai pemaju dan pentadbir Bandar. Walaupun begitu, fungsi pengurusan Bandar telah diambilalih oleh Majlis Daerah Hulu Langat pada tahun 1987. Pembangunan fizikal Bandar Baru Bangi telah dijalankan mengikut seksyen dan permintaan pasaran bagi rumah-rumah kediaman, lot-lot kediaman, tanah-tanah perusahaan dan institutsi oleh orang ramai, agensi-agensi kerajaan dan pihak swasta. Pada masa yang sama Perbadanan dengan kerjasama Majlis Daerah Hulu Langat menyediakan kemudahan-kemudahan infrastruktur asas dan rekreasi atau riadah secara berperingkat-peringkat mengikut kemampuan kewangan Perbadanan dan pihak kerajaan.” (Bahagian Pentadbiran, Jabatan Kemajuan Bangi. Dipetik oleh Lee Jun Seng, Lim Sook Yee, Livia binti Lahat, Low Yoke Yen @ UKM, 2006: |"KKKH 4543: Perancangan Pembangunan Bandar: Projek Kajian Lalulintas Bandar Baru Bangi, m.s.13)

1975-08-14: Visi Perancangan Bandar Baru Bangi

Ketua perancangan Bandar Baru Bangi, En. Mohamed Ahyat bin Mohamed Nor menyatakan, bandar tersebut bakal menjadi bandar untuk pejalan kaki dan penunggang basikal, setelah siap pada tahun 1977 kelak. Populasinya dijangka mencapai 180,000 menjelang tahun 1990.

NOTA 1: Pada tahun 1980-an, terdapat beberapa batang jalan khas untuk pejalan kaki dan penunggang basikal serta motosikal yang menjadi penghubung di antara seksyen-seksyen awal di Bangi. Namun penggunaannya semakin berkurangan, sehingga hampir terbiar kini: “Pada mereka yang lahir dan pernah bersekolah di Sekolah Rendah Bandar Baru Bangi (Jalan 2), Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Bandar Baru Bangi (Jalan 2), Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Bandar Baru Bangi (Jalan 3) sekitar tahun 1980an dan 1990an pasti tahu tentang kewujudan terowong ini. Ianya menjadi laluan pejalan kaki, penunggang basikal dan motosikal sebagai jalan pintas sama ada dari Seksyen 3 dan 4 ke Seksyen 1 dan 2 atau sebaliknya (bagi orang lama di Bandar Baru Bangi sebutan Fasa lebih selesa dari Seksyen).” (Gedung Minda Botak, Oktober 18, 2020: |"Terowong Lagenda Bandar Baru Bangi").

Lorong-lorong yang terbiar ini kemudiannya ditumbuhi rumput dan belukar. Pada September 2010, sebahagiannya diubah menjadi jalan laluan kereta: “Kerja-kerja menaiktaraf jalan asalnya untuk pejalan kaki dari jalan 1/3K, ke Jalan ke Sekolah Rendah Kebangsaan Jalan Dua dan ke Sekolah Menengah Bandar Baru Bangi. Dulu jalan untuk pejalan kaki ini diatur slab dua hala. Permukaan jalan ini ditumbuhi rumput. Kini sejak awal September 2010 jalan ini dinaiktaraf. Dua minggu dulu jalan ini diratakan dengan batu-batu krikil dan mulai semalam (21 September) mulai ditarkan. Sesungguhnya dengan siapnya jalan ini memudahkan anak-anak ke Sekolah dan hubungan antara Jalan 2 ke Seksyen Satu.” (Dr Shafie Abu Bakar, 22 September 2010: |"Lanjutan Zon Bersih Bandar Baru Bangi")
Lorong pejalan kaki asal di sebelah kanan.Lorong pejalan kaki asal di sebelah kanan.Penurapan selesai.
Tinggalan lorong pejalan kaki yang asal di Seksyen 1 ketika masih kelihatan, sebelum ianya diturap sepenuhnya. (Sumber gambar: Dr Shafie Abu Bakar, 22 September 2010: |"Lanjutan Zon Bersih Bandar Baru Bangi").

Belukar di lorong pejalan kaki Seksyen 3, menghala ke Seksyen 2Terowong pejalan kaki Seksyen 3Lorong pejalan kaki Seksyen 3Lorong pejalan kaki Seksyen 3Terowong pejalan kaki Seksyen 3 di waktu malamBahagian dalam terowong pejalan kaki Seksyen 3 di waktu malamPandangan dari terowong pejalan kaki Seksyen 3, menghala ke Seksyen 2, di waktu malamPandangan dari penghujung lorong pejalan kaki Seksyen 3, di waktu malam
Tinggalan lorong pejalan kaki di sekitar terowong yang menghubungkan di antara Seksyen 2 dan 3. (Sumber gambar: Mazwan Johar @ Facebook, 18 Oktober 2020: |"PEMULIHAN TEROWONG BERHANTU DI SEKSYEN 2 BBB").

Suatu kajian telah dibuat bagi mengenalpasti punca-punca penduduk Bandar Baru Bangi tidak memilih untuk berjalan kaki atau menunggang basikal dalam kegiatan harian mereka: “Hasil kajian menunjukkan kumpulan faktor yang amat mempengaruhi keinginan menggunakan kenderaan tidak bermotor adalah faktor halangan iaitu cuaca dan jarak perjalanan (10.879), keperluan asas yang tidak disediakan (1.945), keadaan laluan (1.589), persekitaran (1.142) dan halangan perundangan (1.044). Manakala faktor kedua yang mempengaruhi mempengaruhi keputusan untuk memilih kepada kenderaan tidak bermotor adalah faktor kesenangan (2.233), galakan (1.401) dan keselamatan (1.002). Manakala faktor yang paling rendah mempengaruhi keputusan untuk bertukar kepada penggunaan kenderaaan tidak bermotor ialah faktor sekatan iaitu tiada kemudahan untuk kenderaan tidak bermotor (1.302). Hasil kajian ini memberi implikasi bahawa elemen kesenangan dan kesejahteraan kepada pengguna perlu diberi keutamaan dalam membentuk polisi ke arah penggunaan kenderaan tidak bermotor di Malaysia.” (Muhamad Razuhanafi Mat Yazid, Muhamad Nazri Borhan, Rozmi Ismail @ Akademika, 88 (1), m.s. 209-224, 2018: |"Faktor analisis pendorong dan penghalang kepada kenderaan tidak bermotor di Bangi").

NOTA 2: Dari 1974 hingga 1990, pembangunan serta pertumbuhan penduduk Bandar Baru Bangi tidak sepesat yang dijangka (hanya 27,620 daripada jangkaan 180,000 orang menjelang 1990): “Bandar Baru Bangi mula dimajukan pada tahun 1974 dengan penghuni awal tidak sampai 1,000 orang. Pada tahun 1990, penduduknya dianggarkan seramai kira-kira 27,620 orang (PKNS 1990)” (Katiman Rostam, Wan Maimunah Wan Ismail @ Akademika 50, Januari 1997, m.s. 25-41: |"Pola Interaksi Sosial di Kawasan Perurnahan Terancang di Bandar Baru Bangi"). Kemungkinan antara faktor perkara ini berlaku ialah:

  • Kajian semula pada tahun 1979: “Pembangunan peringkat awal Bandar Baru Bangi adalah berdasarkan kepada pelan struktur yang disebabkan oleh PKNS dan Jabatan Perancang Bandar dan Desa pada tahun 1974 dan selepas itu dikaji semula pada tahun 1979 dengan matlamat untuk mewujudkan pembangunan yang sederhana bagi menampung seramai 75,000 penduduk dalam tahun 2000 dan dengan harapan Bandar Baru Bangi ini menjadi sebuah Bandar wilayah yang terbesar di kawasan Selatan Negeri Selangor Darul Ehsan.” (Bahagian Pentadbiran, Jabatan Kemajuan Bangi. Dipetik oleh Lee Jun Seng, Lim Sook Yee, Livia binti Lahat, Low Yoke Yen @ UKM, 2006: |"KKKH 4543: Perancangan Pembangunan Bandar: Projek Kajian Lalulintas Bandar Baru Bangi, m.s.12)

  • Keadaan ekonomi yang turun naik di antara tahun 1974-1990:-
    Malaysia: GDP Trend, 1971 ‐ 2011
    “Malaysia: GDP Trend, 1971 ‐ 2011” (Abdul Aziz Awang, 23/07/2012: |"Krisis Ekonomi Malaysia: Punca, Implikasi dan Langkah Penyelesaian" (PDF)).

1976-06-28: Bangi Affair

Pada 16 Jun 1976, Hussein Jahidin, editor Berita Harian Singapura, telah ditahan oleh Internal Security Department kerajaan Singapura, di bawah ISA), di atas tuduhan kegiatan subversif komunis. Turut ditahan ialah bekas pembantu beliau, Azmi Mahmud. Di dalam pernyataan Kementerian Ehwal Dalam Negeri Singapura ketika itu, kedua-dua tahanan tersebut mengakui bahawa mereka telah mengolah laporan berita dan artikel Berita Harian untuk menimbulkan rasa tidak puas hati di kalangan orang Melayu Singapura, seterusnya mempengaruhi mereka agar menyokong komunisme sebagai wadah penyelesaian masalah-masalah mereka itu. Turut dinyatakan dalam pengakuan mereka, kegiatan tersebut adalah di bawah seliaan dan arahan |Abdul Samad Ismail, editor pengurusan New Straits Times Group di Kuala Lumpur, sejak tahun 1972 lagi.

Sementara itu, pernyataan Kementerian Hal Ehwal Dalam Negeri Malaysia turut menuduh A Samad Ismail merancang meperluaskan sokongan komunis di Singapura, seterusnya mempengaruhi orang Melayu Semenanjung Malaysia. Seminggu sebelumnya, beliau dan Samani bin Mohammed Amin (pembantu editor di Berita Harian Malaysia), telah ditahan oleh Cawangan Khas / Special Branch di Kuala Lumpur.

Pada 27 Jun 1976, TV Singapura menyiarkan wawancara dengan kedua-dua tahanan ini. Di dalam wawancara ini, selain penjelasan lanjut mengenai pengakuan di atas, Azmi Mahmud turut menyebut suatu peristiwa yang digelar “Bangi Affair”, sebagai salah satu contoh bentuk tugasan mereka: “He also mentioned that student issues can be used because we use this wisely this can stir up emotions. As an example, he mentioned the “Bangi Affair”. He said in the “Bangi Affair” Berita Harian exploited the issue in such a way that the paper is read by everybody. especially the students because they championed the cause of the students.”

Di dalam sidang parlimen pada 2 Julai 1976, En. Abdullah Ismail, wakil pemuda UMNO, telah membentangkan usul menyokong langkah kerajaan meneruskan tangkapan terhadap sebarang elemen-elemen komunis dan subversif serta pendukung mereka, tanpa mengira statusnya di dalam masyarakat. Usul ini telah diluluskan sebulat suara. Ketika pembentangan ini, beliau antara lain ada menyebut perihal “Bangi Issue” (merujuk “Bangi Affair” di atas), sebagai salah satu contoh taktik pihak komunis menyebarkan pengaruh mereka ke dalam masyarakat, kerajaan dan parti politik. Di dalam peristiwa ini, beliau mendakwa pihak komunis telah menyusup masuk ke dalam persatuan pelajar universiti, dan pihak akhbar (ketika itu di bawah seliaan A Samad Ismail) telah memberi tumpuan yang khusus kepada mereka.

NOTA 1: Sumber asal pernyataan Kementerian Ehwal Dalam Negeri Singapura yang dirujuk dalam laporan ini: MINISTRY OF CULTURE, 22/6/1976: |"THE DETENTION OF HUSSEIN JAHIDIN AND AZMI MAHMUD, EDITOR AND ASSISTANT EDITOR OF THE MALAY DAILY BERITA HARIAN SINGAPORE (BHS) ON 16 JUN 76".

NOTA 2: Mantan Perdana Menteri Singapura, Lee Kuan Yew, turut merakamkan sedikit latar peristiwa ini di dalam memoir beliau: “A few weeks after (Tun) Razak’s funeral, he (Tun Hussein Onn) visited Singapore, saying he wanted to establish good personal relations and be able to discuss and overcome bilateral problems. We had a one-on-one meeting. I told him my fears of Malay communists and their sympathisers penetrating Malaysia’s mass media and their radical Malay student and trade union leadership. We talked freely and frankly about the Malay communist infiltration of his media, including the activities of Samad Ismail, an MCP member from his time in Singapore in the 1950s, and his group. When Razak was prime minister, Samad had worked his way into UMNO and become a powerful figure in the New Straits Times and Berita Harian, building up a coterie of supporters. Hussein agreed this was a danger but said that the communists and student radicals could not be arrested without upsetting the Malay ground. Later, in June 1976, the ISD arrested one of Samad’s disciples in Singapore, Hussein Jahidin, a Berita Harian editor. He implicated Samad and several other Malay journalists in Kuala Lumpur as pro-communists. The Malaysian Special Branch arrested Samad and his Kuala Lumpur group. Hussein Onn had had the courage to act against a pro-communist Malay intelligentsia although this was likely to cost him some support.” (Lee Kuan Yew, 2012: |"From Third World to First: The Singapore Story, 1965-2000", m.s. 245-246).

NOTA 3: Analisa lanjut mengenai latar peristiwa ini: “In a series of public talks over the radio in 1961, entitled 'The Battle for Merger', Lee (Kuan Yew) repeatedly alleged that (A) Samad (Ismail) (using his MNP code name Zainal backwards), was a communist and connected to the Malayan Communist party. The then general manager Of the Straits Times press in Kuala Lumpur, A. C. Simmons, also confirmed that he was under pressure from 'certain Singaporeans' to sack Samad from Berita Harian. Much to Lee's annoyance, the campaign to tarnish Samad proved ineffectual. This was demonstrated by Samad's rapid rise within the ranks of the Straits Times in Kuala Lumpur, and his growing influence within leftist UMNO circles close to Tunku's successor, Tun Razak. Indeed, Samad and other former PAP stalwarts who had relocated to Kuala Lumpur, such as James Puthucheary, were advising the Alliance leadership on rehabilitating Malaya's pro-Western image within the Afro-Asian bloc. Samad and Puthucheary were regularly included in Malayan delegations to Afro-Asian solidarity conferences in the mid-1960s. However, Samad's insider status within UMNO circles was short-circuited by the 1976 'confession' of ISA detainee Hussein Jahidin, a Singaporean Berita Harian editor and former Utusan journalist. Inter alia, Hussein had 'confessed' that Samad and other senior Malaysian newspapermen were communists. Shortly after, Samad and other supposed communists were detained under the ISA in Malaysia. Satisfied by the Malaysian government's swift clampdown against Samad and other 'communists', Lee noted in his memoirs that “Hussein Onn has the courage to act against a pro-communist Malaysian intelligentsia”. (Lily Zubaidah Rahim: “Winning and Losing Malay Support: PAP-Malay Community Relations, 1950s and 1960s”, disunting oleh Michael D. Barr, Carl A. Trocki: 2008: Paths Not Taken: Political Pluralism in Post-War Singapore, m.s.100-101).

NOTA 4: Menurut beberapa sumber lain, pernyataan pengakuan serta wawancara ini adalah berunsur paksaan, ketika berada di dalam tahanan ISA:-

  • “Further arrests of journalists took place in 1976-77 following the forced withdrawal of Singapore's People's Action Party (PAP) from the Socialist International. In June 1976 Hussein Jahidin and Azmi Mahmud of the Berita Harian Singapore were detained under the ISA. Within a short period both made 'confessions' that they had attempted to slant the news in their journal in a manner critical of the Government. Their arrest was followed in February 1977 by that of Arun Senkuttuvan, Singapore correspondent of the Economist and the Financial Times. Some weeks later the arrest took place of the correspondent of the Far Eastern Economic Review in Singapore, Ho Kwon Ping. Lawyers who have sought to interview clients who are political detainees have frequently found themselves requested by the security authorities to specify in advance those matters which they wish to discuss with their clients. When interviews do take place between lawyers and their clients these communications are never private but in fact take place via monitored telephone calls through a glass partition. During the initial 30 days' interrogation that all political detainees are subjected to, they are invariably refused access to a lawyer. In Amnesty International's experience, this greatly increases the likelihood of ill-treatment and torture of detainees.

    Both journalists made televized 'confessions' within a month of their detention acknowledging government accusations that they had sought to defame the Government of Singapore by their reports. The editors of both the Financial Times and the Far Eastern Economic Review issued categorical statements that there was no cause for suspicion that the journalists had written in a slanted fashion and placing the 'confessions' in the context of continuous interrogation and the prospect of indefinite detention under the ISA. Both men were released on 29 April 1977. Arun Senkuttuvan was deprived of his citizenship while in detention.”


    (Sumber: |REPORT OF AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL MISSION TO SINGAPORE - 30 November to 5 December 1978, m.s. 42). Sumber lain: Cherian George, 2012: |FREEDOM FROM THE PRESS: Journalism and State Power in Singapore (PDF), m.s.103-104.

  • “Shock and disbelief again seemed to be the reaction of some of the press for many weeks after the arrests. The Malaysian and Singaporean newspapers, of course, lent full support to their governments, but the Hong Kong Standard and Bangkok Post called for an open trial, and the Press Foundation of Asia requested a ' high-level judicial enquiry' to ensure that ' there is no miscarriage of justice or, as feared by some, a deliberate frameup by some interested parties'. The London Times, featuring Samad in its 'Prisoners of Conscience' column, questioned Samad's masterminding of distortion in Berita Harian Singapore, stating: “This allegation apparently takes no account of the fact that Mr Ismail relinquished control of the Singapore editorial policy of Berita Harian some four years ago. Especially dubious were FEER correspondents in Malaysia and Singapore. For example, K. Das pointed out that the seven-paragraph press release announcing the arrests of Samad and Samani did not name specific action, citing place and time, but did remind readers that Samad, a card-carrying communist in 1951 when he was arrested by the British in Singapore, had not disavowed his adherence to communism upon his 1953 release. Das wondered why Samad, under close scrutiny since his migration to Malaysia in 1959, would be given the Literary Pioneer Award just a month before his arrest if he was a known communist campaigner. Das added that he did not believe security had borne so many fruits in such a short time after he won the literary prize; he thought the whole episode was linked with revelations made in Singapore. He showed that the Singapore Home Ministry statement on Hussein and Azmi, although somewhat more specific, also lacked names and places, adding that the Singapore confessions wrapped up the Malaysian case against Samad - a case that made a good example of the government's promise to seek out subversives no matter how important they are.” (John A. Lent, 1978: |"True (?) Confessions - TV in Malaysia and Singapore").

  • Perkongsian pengalaman serta perspektif anak A Samad Ismail, Nuraina, mengenai peristiwa ini:-

NOTA 4: Sedikit latar belakang Hussein Jahidin:-

  • 1932: Dilahirkan.
  • 1956 (8 Julai): Menubuhkan Perkumpulan Seni (||): “On 8 July 1956, Bani and a few friends, including reporter and playwright Hussein Jahidin, composer Zubir Said and poet Usman Awang, founded Perkumpulan Seni, which would become one of the three prominent Malay theatre groups of the period, together with Persatuan Persuratan Pemuda Pemudi Melayu (4PM) and Sriwana.” (TributeSG, 12 Oct 2016: |"BANI BUANG: The father of modern Malay drama in Singapore").
    Perintis Perkumpulan Seni, 8 Julai 1956.
    Perintis Perkumpulan Seni, 8 Julai 1956. (Sumber: Berita Harian Singapura, 19 Oktober 2020: ||"PS dirintis tokoh bukan calang-calang").
  • 1960-an: Menyumbang kepada perkembangan drama Melayu Singapura: “Antara tokoh yang telah menyumbang kepada perkembangan drama Melayu Singapura pada 1960-an ialah Rawan Hiba atau Rahman B, Kalam Hamidi, Onn Abdul Rahman, Nongchik Abdol Gani, Hussein Jahidin, Yusnor Ef dan Shaharom Husain dan lain-lain lagi.” (Majlis Bahasa Melayu Singapura (MBMS), 2015: |"Yang Terukir - Bahasa dan Persuratan Melayu", m.s. 99)
  • 1961: Pemberita Utusan Melayu, juga Ketua Parti Rakyat Singapura. Mengetuai mogok pekerja-pekerja Utusan di Singapura selama tiga bulan. (Isham Rais, 2014: |"Hussien, bekas pejuang Utusan Melayu meninggal dunia").
  • 1962: Pegawai Kesatuan Sekerja
    Hussein Jahidin (pegawai kesatuan sekerja, 1962)
    Hussein Jahidin, ketika menjadi pegawai kesatuan sekerja, 1962. (Sumber: SINGAPORE PRESS HOLDINGS (SPH), 8/1/1962: "MR HUSSEIN JAHIDIN, UNION OFFICIAL.").
  • 1963: Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Kerja Kesatuan Sekerja Singapura / Singapore Trade Union Working Commitee, Ahli Jawatankuasa Kesatuan Wartawan Singapura, Ketua Seksyen Melayu Kesatuan Kakitangan Umum Singapura, serta pengarang “Suara Kesatuan”.
  • 1963 (Feb): Tahanan ISA (kali pertama). Ditangkap bersama 120 orang lagi ahli parti kiri dan kesatuan buruh dalam ”Operation Cold Store”: “The Barisan Sosialis was a feared adversary with strong left-wing support; but many of its top and capable leaders were neatly arrested and detained in the infamous 1963 security operation Cold Store, With the tacit support Of the British and the Malayan governments. The security operation netted in about 120 “troublesome and undesirable” persons, amongst whom were nine journalists from the Chinese-, Malay- and English-language print media. Notable among them were Said Zahari, Hussein Jahidin and Lee's future press amanuensis, James Fu Chiao Sian, each of whom we shall discuss in the course of this narrative. All the nine newsmen were detained not so much for their journalistic writings as for their trade union activities and known sympathies for the Barisan Sosialis and its leaders. All those 120-odd persons were tied by a common strand in their opposition to merger with Malaya. For example, Hussein Jahidin - as the then chairman of the Singapore Trades Union Working Committee - had invited representatives from more than a hundred civic organizations to oppose the referendum on merger. Two such proposed meetings were banned by the government.” (Francis T. Seow, 1998: "The Media Enthralled: Singapore Revisited, Volume 10", m.s.23).
  • 1965 (21 Mei): Pembebasan bersyarat dari tahanan ISA. (Berita Harian, 21 May 1965, Page 1: |"HUSSAIN JAHIDIN BEBAS DARI TAHANAN").
  • 1971: Yang Dipertua Perkumpulan Seni. Pernah menyampaikan pandangan kontra di dalam suatu forum di National University of Singapore (NUS) bertemakan “Adapting the Malays to urbanization and industrialization”: “This seminar was largely another occasion to parade the set of conducts of “Change Attitudes”- although with one interesting exception, the speech of Hussein Jahidin. Sidek Saniff exemplified the usual set of conducts by detecting a problem in the attitude of Malay organisations. He claimed that they chose the wrong field of activity, by focusing too exclusively on cultural issues. He urged them to be active not only in the cultural issues but also in social, economic, and educational fields, to enable Malays to develop effectively. However, the journalist Hussein Jahidin expressed a view that contrasted with the familiar pattern of “Change Attitudes”. He emphasised the achievements already made by the Malays up to that point, and asked why it is that Malays cannot acknowledge such changes. “It was suggested to Malays that they move from Kampong [urban slum] houses into HDB flats. This proposal has been carried out, and the majority of the Malays now live in HDB flats. Then the Malays were advised to work in industrial sectors. It cannot be denied that many Malays now do work in the industrial sectors . . . It seems to be untrue that the Malays have not changed their attitudes and that they have not managed to adapt themselves [to the current situation in Singapore]. What has yet to be attained by the Malay society is that degree of change desired by intellectuals and those others who are making appeals, urges, and suggestions.” This comment is significant and insightful. It precisely points out that “Change Attitudes” involves lack of appreciation for how much Malays have achieved. Housing and employment for Malays were both targeted as problems in the goals set by the landmark seminar in 1970. And in both areas, the Malays were already progressing well towards those declared goals. But no matter what is achieved by the Malays, it is never considered satisfactory because Malay academics and other leaders set the standard, and they simply keep urging the Malays to match the achievements of the other ethnic groups. After criticising the 'ivory tower' approach of intellectuals who were setting the “Change Attitudes” agenda, Hussien Jahidin added, “Let us suggest a different way”. His proposal was for Malay academics and other leaders to “meet face to face with [ordinary] Malays and together seek solutions to the problems they face.” (Yasuko Hassall Kobayashi, May 2006: |"Desire Bound: formation of a Malay minority agency in Singapore", m.s. 117-118).
  • 1974: Lawatan ke Moscow, Russia.
    Hussein Jahidin di Moscow, Russia, 1974.
    “The House of Friendship with Peoples of Foreign Countries. Member of the presidium and council of the union of Soviet societies of friendship and cultural relations with the foreign countries Valentina Lyubomudrova during a meeting with Hussein Jahidin, a guest from Singapore.” (S. Avramenko @ Sputnik, 1/6/1974: "Photo #2909111").
  • 1976: Editor Berita Harian.
  • 1976 (16 Jun): Tahanan ISA (kali kedua).
    Hussein Jahidin (Gambar dalam laporan ini)
    Hussein Jahidin (Gambar dalam laporan ini)
  • 1981-1986: Pengelola penerbitan “Anika”, tabloid dwimingguan dalam Bahasa Melayu di Singapura. (Mohd Raman Daud @ Sekata - Jurnal Bahasa dan Persuratan, 6 Nov 2019, m.s. 9: |MENYUSURI KEWARTAWANAN MELAYU DI SINGAPURA). ”… akhbar tabloid dwi-mingguan yang diasuh Hussein Jahidin (1933-2014) yang muncul pada akhir 1980 dan terhenti penerbitannya kerana masalah kewangan pada 1986. Anika mempunyai ruangan berita setempat, lidah pengarang, sajak dan cerpen serta esei sastera, hiburan dan kisah luar biasa seperti cerita seram. Anika pernah mencapai edaran 22,000 naskhah pada 1983 dan kemudian muncul sebagai mingguan (A Ghani Hamid & Sulaiman Jeem 1997).“ (Majlis Bahasa Melayu Singapura (MBMS), 2015: |"Yang Terukir - Bahasa dan Persuratan Melayu", m.s. 188-189).
  • 1982: Yang Dipertua Persatuan Wartawan Melayu Singapura.
    Hussein Jahidin (Presiden Persatuan Wartawan Melayu Singapura, 1982)
    (Sumber: Persatuan Wartawan Melayu Singapura, 1982: Wartawan: majlis ulangtahun ke 27, m.s. 2)
  • 2014 (1 Feb): Meninggal dunia (Usia 81 tahun), setelah lebih 10 hari sakit tenat di Hospital Besar Singapura (SGH), kerana mengalami penyakit ginjal, kencing manis kronik, tekanan darah terlalu rendah dan masalah jantung.
    Hussein Jahidin (gambar laporan ini)
    Hussein Jahidin (Sumber berita dan gambar: Irma Kamaruddin @ Berita Harian Singapura, 2/2/2014: |"Mantan editor BH meninggal dunia").

1976-07-02: Lebuhraya KL-Seremban

Lebuhraya Kuala Lumpur-Seremban sedang dalam pembinaan. Antara susur keluar-masuk ialah di Bangi, yang kekal hingga ke hari ini.

1977-10-16: Perpindahan Perpustakaan UKM

Perpindahan perpustakaan ke kampus Bangi, di-Paras 3 dan 5 bangunan Pentadbiran.
Perpustakaan UKM dipindahkan dari Jalan Pantai, Kuala Lumpur, ke perpustakaan sementara di tingkat 3 dan 5, bangunan pentadbiran, kampus Bangi. (Dr Shafie Abu Bakar, June 3, 2014: |"Perpustakaan Induk UKM Dinamakan `Perpustakaan Tun Seri Lanang`". Dr Shafie Abu Bakar, June 3, 2014).

1978-05-01: Ladang Sungai Merab

Malakoff Berhad bakal memperolehi Ladang Sungai Marap (Sungai Merab) seluas 255 hektar (250 daripadanya telah dipenuhi pokok getah matang). Ladang ini adalah sebahagian daripada Ladang Broome.

Ladang Sungai Marap (Sungai Merab) dan Broome
Ladang Sungai Marap (Sungai Merab) dan Ladang Broome.

1979-03-16: Pembinaan Masjid UKM

“MASJID UKM telah dibina di atas tapak seluas dua hektar yang terletak di hadapan pintu masuk utama Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Pembinaannya dimulakan pada 16 Mac 1979 dengan kos berjumlah RM 5.1 juta. Ia telah diserahkan secara rasmi kepada pihak Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia pada hari Rabu 14 April 1982. Usaha pengimarahan masjid ini bermula pada hari Jumaat 16 April 1982. Reka bentuk Masjid UKM adalah hasil ilham Encik Abdullah Bakri, bekas Pengarah Unit Pembangunan, UKM. Bangunan ini dikelilingi oleh enam menara dan sebuah menara besar setinggi 6666 sentimeter yang telah diilhamkan oleh Tun Syed Nasir, bekas Pro Canselor UKM.”

Masjid UKM dalam pembinaan

(Sumber: Pusat Islam, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM): |"Sejarah Penubuhan Masjid". Pusat Islam, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)).

Masjid UKM dalam pembinaan (Sudut lain)
(Sumber gambar: ibangi.my : Bandar Baru Bangi Online Community, 23 Mac 2016: "FOTO KOMUNITI" (Sumber asal: Penerbit UKM)).

NOTA 1: “Masjid UKM dibina dengan kos RM6.5 juta, hasil sumbangan kerajaan Malaysia dan Arab Saudi. Mula dibina pada 16 Mac 1979 dan digunakan buat pertama kalinya pada 16 April 1982, iaitu untuk solat fardhu Jumaat - Sumber : SENADA, April 1982 (ms. 01)” (Harith Faruqi Sidek, February 06, 2013: |"Sejarah Masjid UKM").

1979-09-19: Perancangan PUSPATI

Di dalam suatu majlis “Great Economic Debate” di Kuala Lumpur, En. Gurmit Singh, Presiden Persatuan Environmental Protection Society of Malaysia (EPSM) menyeru Petronas agar menyumbang lebih banyak dana kepada penyelidikan tenaga alternatif di institusi-institusi penyelidikan dan pengajian tinggi negara. Sebagai penyokong tegar polisi tenaga negara, beliau turut disokong oleh Dr Mohamed Anwar Adnan dari UKM, yang mencadangkan agar tabung amanah diadakan bagi mendanai penyelidikan tersebut. Dr Anwar juga menyeru agar pihak kerajaan tegas dalam usaha penjimatan tenaga, contohnya mengenakan had terhadap pengeluaran kereta, menaikkan kadar cukai jalan, serta mendirikan empangan-empangan mini-hidro. Sementara itu, Dr Jomo K S, juga dari UKM, menyeru kerajaan agar memastikan langkah-langkah keselamatan yang ketat dan menyeluruh dijalankan di pusat penyelidikan nuklear yang bakal dibina di Bangi, |PUSPATI.

NOTA 1: Sedikit maklumat tentang sejarah pembinaan PUSPATI di Bangi:-

  • “Infrastructural development on the 27-hectare at Bangi commenced in January 1979, culminating in its coming into full operation in June 1982 with the commissioning of its nuclear research reactor. PUSPATI was later renamed the Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN) in June 1983 on being placed under the auspices of the Prime Minister's Department.” (Asia Research News: |"Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT)").
  • Sejarah reaktor yang dibina di PUSPATI: ”Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI atau dikenali sebagai RTP merupakan satu-satunya reaktor penyelidikan nuklear di Malaysia. Ia mula beroperasi pada 1982 setelah mencapai kegentingan pertama pada 28 Jun 1982. TRIGA bermaksud Training, Research, Isotope production dan General Atomic.“ (Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 2020: |"Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI").
  • Menurut laporan sidang Dewan Rakyat pada 6 Disember 1982, Setiausaha Parlimen Kementerian Sains, Teknologi dan Alam Sekitar, En. Law Hieng Ding menyatakan bahawa operasi penuh PUSPATI terpaksa ditangguhkan ke tahun hadapannya (1983), atas sebab-sebab tertentu. Selain itu, beliau turut menyebut tapak perancangan asal PUSPATI ialah di Sungai Buloh, sebelum ditukar ke Bangi atas “sebab-sebab teknikal dan keselamatan serta kesesuaian kawasan”. Beliau turut menyatakan keyakinan terhadap keselamatan reaktor yang bakal dibina. (Utusan Malaysia, 7 Disember 1982: |"PUSPATI akan mulakan operasi tahun hadapan").

NOTA 2: Perihal En. Gurmit Singh: “Gurmit crusaded fearlessly, speaking out about environmental issues in many national news-making events such as the construction of the Bakun Dam in Sarawak; the proposed construction of the Tembeling dam in Taman Negara, Pahang; the pollution of the Klang Valley’s Sungai Klang and Penang’s Sungai Juru; the storage of radioactive waste in Bukit Merah, Perak; and the destruction of Batu Caves, Selangor, through limestone quarrying.” (Terence Toh @ The Star, 30 Apr 2017: |"This man has been fighting to save Malaysia's environment for half a century").

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sejarahbangi-1970-1979.txt · Last modified: 2021/01/16 10:37 by sazli