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Hutan Simpan Bangi (1906-kini)

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Perihal Hutan Simpan Bangi

Tapak UKM pada asalnya ialah Hutan Simpan Bangi (Bangi Forest Reserve):-

“Terletak kira-kira 40 km ke arah selatan Kuala Lumpur dan digazet sebagai Hutan Simpan Bangi pada 1906. Pada 1970 Hutan Simpan Bangi diserahkan kepada UKM untuk pembinaan kampus. Pada 1993 Hutan Simpan Bangi digazet sebagai “kawasan hijau” universiti dan ditukar nama menjadi Hutan Simpan Kekal Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Hutan Simpan Kekal UKM ini merupakan hutan tropika jenis dipterokarp. Keluasan Hutan Simpan Kekal UKM ialah 138 hektar yang dikelilingi jalan raya di sebelah Semenyih, Bangi dan Kajang. Puncak tertingginya ialah Bukit Rupa setinggi 105 meter dari aras laut pada koordinat 101°45’969” Timur dan 02°55’016” Utara.” (Mohamad Samsudin, Norhayati Ahmad, Roslan Abd Shukor, 2016: |"WARISAN VARSITI KITA: FOTOGRAFI DAN LANDSKAP UKM").

1896-1906: Sejarah Awal: "The Reko Woods"

Di dalam suatu laporan oleh Henry N. Ridley pada 6 Julai 1896, beliau telah mencadangkan penubuhan Jabatan Perhutanan di negeri Selangor, bagi mengawal selia penebangan serta pengeluaran hasil hutan. “The Reko Woods”, suatu kawasan hutan yang belum diterokai seluas 10,000 ekar (4047 hektar) di sepanjang Jalan Reko-Sepang adalah antara beberapa kawasan hutan di Selangor yang telah dikenalpasti sebagai sumber berharga dan perlu dikawal rapi oleh jabatan ini. Antara spesis pokok yang ditemui di dalamnya ialah merbau, pauh kijang, petaling, tempinis, keranji, dan tembusu. Hasil usaha perintis ini, Hutan Simpan Bangi (dikatakan nama asalnya “Bukit Puteri”), seluas 2,338 ekar (946 hektar) akhirnya diwartakan kira-kira 10 tahun kemudian, pada 31 Disember 1906 (Nombor Warta: 827). Puncak tertingginya ialah Bukit Rupa setinggi 105 meter: “7. The Reko Woods. - Between Sepang and Kajang lies an extensive tract of forest country through which the main road connecting these places runs. Much of the country round Sepang and Kajang as far as Reko is either under cultivation or has been so, and it is probable that a great deal more will be taken up. But the greater part of the forest country is not likely to be required for this purpose or for tin-mining. The forest is rich in merabau, pauh kijang and petaling, and contains also some quantity of tampinis, krunji and tembusu. I would recommend block of, say, 10,000 acres to be reserved in the centre of this forest at about, the 13th or 14th mile from Sepang along the road.” (Henry N. Ridley, 6 Julai 1896: |"REPORT ON THE FORESTS OF SELANGOR", m.s. 2).

Cadangan ini (secara keseluruhan) diterima baik oleh Residen Selangor ketika itu, lalu dipanjangkan kepada Frank Swettenham, Ketua Residen pertama Negeri-Negeri Melayu Bersekutu, pada 1 Ogos 1896. Ianya diluluskan pada 8 September 1896.

(Sumber dokumen dan gambar: HIGH COMMISSIONER OFFICE, MALAYA, 06/07/1896 @ ARKIB NEGARA MALAYSIA: |"REPORT ON THE FORESTS OF SELANGOR BY MR. RIDLEY. FORWARDS:-").

Namun begitu perbincangan mengenai pewartaan Hutan Simpan Bangi hanya berlaku kira-kira 9 tahun kemudian (1905). Contoh perbincangan ialah di antara pemangku pegawai daerah Ulu Langat, Jabatan Hutan (diwakili oleh Arthur Bligh (A.B.) Stephens), dan Residen Selangor (Henry Conway Belfield) serta setiausahanya, berkenaan status persempadanan sebuah nurseri Jabatan Hutan, juga sebuah kuari, di tepi Jalan Reko yang baru siap dibina:-

  • “With reference to S.R.1792/05 and your minute dated 27.6.05 in that correspondence, I have the honour to point out that the Forest Department have made a nursery within the 10 chain reserve which it was decided to be left along the side of the new Reko' Bangi road.
    2. I ask that the Forest Department may be asked to state definitely that the reserve is being left, in order that there may not be repetition of the confusion which arose in the case of the Sungei Lalang Reserve.”
    - Ag: D.O. (Pemangku Pegawai Daerah Ulu Langat).
  • “I don't think I can do so as by copy of Resident's minute enclosed he distinctly says he does not want it, nor should I think any other person would wish to give up land to natives who never permanently cultivate, and, if report be true they will have to pay a quit rent of $3 after 5 years occupation which will make them more than ever into shifting cultivations. - A.B. Stephens, 28.12.05” - Jabatan Hutan (diwakili oleh Arthur B. (A.B.) Stephens).
  • “Resident, I presume that if the Forest Dept. wish to include these ten chains within the reserve approved in 1792/05 attached you have no objection to him doing so? If they do not want it the D.O. can give it out but the Forest Dept. should not leave it out of the reserve & then proceed to plant nurseries on it. ? RCh. 2.1.06” - Setiausaha Residen
  • “I meant the ten chains depth to be included in the reserve. Let that be done. HcB. 5.1.06” - Residen Selangor (Henry Conway Belfield)
  • “D.O. Ulu Langat: Please note that it should be included in the forest reserve. RCh. 6.1.06” - Setiausaha Residen
  • “S.R. Noted.
    2. I suppose the Forest Department will see that the P.w.d. quarries are cut out. The Ex. Engineer informs me that he has written to the Head of his Department about this.? 8.1.06.”
    - Ag: D.O.


Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 20/12/1905: |"BANGI FOREST RESERVE IN THE ULU LANGAT DISTRICT - RE :-" (ARKIB NEGARA MALAYSIA).

1906-01-29: Laporan Tahunan Hutan Selangor (1905)

Laporan tinjauan kawasan-kawasan cadangan hutan simpan di Kuang, Sungei Lallang, Bangi, Ayer Itam, Sungei Guntong, Pulau Lumut, Pulau Jugra, dan Ijok, di bawah seliaan A.B. Stephens. Tinjauan Hutan Simpan Bangi sedang dijalankan oleh Mr. Askey. Di samping itu, beberapa eksperimen penanaman pokok Merbau turut dijalankan:-

“Mr: Askey's work on Bangi and Sungei Lallang was found to contain numbers of errors, and these will have to be rectified before either of them can be gazetted. … Experiments were tried with Merbau at SUngei Lallang and Bangi. It is thought that the seeds falling from the mother trees germinate in the wet weather and the roots of the seedlings get only as far as the surface of the soil (practically thriving on the humus) when the dry season kills them out. To test these 1000 seeds were planted out two in a hole below the humus ten feet apart, also 5000 seedlings from nurseries were planted out under canopy 10 feet apart. It would be too early yet to say how the experiment will work. There are 5000 plants still left in the Sungei lallang nursery which will be put out early in 1906. 20,000 seeds were put down in the Bangi nursery, out of which 3000 have come up so far. These will be planted out in Bangi reserve 10 feet apart. Experiments are also to be tried with rotans Sega and Dahan and nurseries are ready for 20000 seeds.”

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 29/01/1906: |"ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FOREST DEPARTMENT, SELANGOR, FOR THE YEAR 1905").

1906-02-22: Kuari di Reko Woods


Permohonan tanah rizab kuari di sebahagian kecil kawasan hutan Reko Woods. Dalam masa yang sama, kawasan hutan tersebut sedang dalam proses pewartaan sebagai Hutan Simpan Bangi. Oleh sebab itu, berlaku perbincangan yang agak panjang (dalam rekod yang ada di sini, sekurang-kurangnya sehingga 8 November 1906), berkenaan status kawasan tersebut. Ini kerana jika ianya termasuk di dalam hutan simpan, ia tidak perlu lagi diwartakan sebagai rizab kuari, kerana setelah itu sebarang pengeluaran hasil hanya perlukan kelulusan jabatan hutan:-

  • “S.R., The survey of the Bangi Forest Reserve has been completed & the description prepared and sent to C.7(?). who is sending it to the Resident today (I understand) for publication in gazette. To alter the survey by cutting out this small quarry will be a very expensive work & will delay the gazette inspection(?) a long time. Is it worth the expense and delay?” - H.R.S., 8/10/1906
  • “Then it may remain (?) (?) Forest Reserve, but the S.E. should obtain the permission in writing to which it refers, and publication in the gazette must be with held until he reports that he has obtained that.” - HcB(?), 12/10/1906

Setakat ini, belum dapat dipastikan apakah kesudahannya. Hutan Simpan Bangi kemudiannya diwartakan pada 31 Disember 1906, dan tidak pasti sama ada kawasan yang diwartakan itu termasuk cadangan rizab kuari yang dimaksudkan di sini atau pun tidak.

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 22/02/1906: |"LAND REQUIRED FOR A QUERRY RESERVE ON THE BANGI REKO ROAD - RE :-").

1906-12-31: Pewartaan: "Bangi Forest Reserve"

“Gazetted as Bangi Forest Reserve Federated Malay States Government Gazettee – notification no. 827 (31 December 1906) - Total area 2338 acres … 'The Bangi-Sepang road was under construction and to reach the southern boundary of Bukit Tunggul reserve, which was then being demarcated, one had to plough over miles of latterite earth-work and camp at Jenderam, a vile place for mosquitoes. On the other side of the reserve the boundary was formed by the Bangi-Salak bridle path and there was a halting bungalow on it, not far south of Bangi, at which one stayed. He also narrated the sighting of a tiger.'”

(Sumber: Dato’ Shaharuddin Ismail @ Asia Engage 2012 - Regional Conference on Higher Education-Community-Industry Engagement, 7-8 May 2012: ||"Nurturing Eco-Volunteers for UKM Sustainable Campus: A Case Study of the Rainforest Discovery Journey Programme", m.s. 2-3).

1906-1930: Pasca-Pewartaan

1909-1932: Penubuhan Jabatan Hutan dan Pewartaan Hutan-Hutan Simpan

Latar Pewartaan Hutan Simpan
Latar penubuhan Jabatan Hutan: “The British introduction of foreign land codes in Malaya impacted how people in Malaya interacted with the landscape in the legal realm, but the primary transformation that it signified was the fashioning of a number of new categories and typologies of land alienation in the region. One new series of classifications involved the creation of ‘Protected Areas’, such as the forest reserve. Originally conceived by British officials in the late nineteenth century to safeguard local watersheds, the labeling of reserved forest land expanded rapidly in the early twentieth century, particularly after the emergence of a forest management department in the FMS 1909. At this time, Malaya's forests – previously considered public state land – became divided and protected sites, in an effort to both conserve the colony's tree species as well as to earmark specific areas for future timber production. The reservation of Malaya's forest lands in turn led to the mapping of those areas, a process that Jeyamalar Kathirithamby-Wells has called an ‘exercise in territorialization’. These changes were significant. While only 3% of the FMS's 68,324 sq km of total land was reserved forest in 1909, by 1932, forest reserves accounted for over a quarter of the same area's land mass. With time, both forest reserves and other protected areas – including game reserves and national parks – came to represent the bulk of Malaya's land mass (Fig. 1 reveals the prevalence of forest reserves, which are marked in green and red, across the Malay Peninsula by the 1950s).” (David Baillargeon, 2021: |"Spaces of occupation: Colonial enclosure and confinement in British Malaya").

Selangor, Federated Malay States 1913
Hutan-hutan simpan sekitar Bangi pada tahun 1913: Hutan Simpan Bangi (mercu tandanya: |Bukit Rupa), |Hutan Simpan Bukit Tunggul, |Hutan Simpan Sungei Lalang, dan |Hutan Simpan Ayer Itam (Puchong): “Map covers the south east part of Selangor and part of Negri Sembilan showing land use, state boundary, districts, district boundaries, mukim names, coastline fronting Straits of Malacca, railways, roads, rivers, streams, trigonometrical stations, spot heights, hill hachures, lands alienated for agriculture, lands alienated for mining, forest reserves, swamps, River Sepang, River Klang, River Langat, Kajang, Seremban, Port Dickson and others” (Central Survey Office, Kuala Lumpur, Federated Malay States (F.M.S.)., 1913: |" Selangor, Federated Malay States 1913").

Dokumen pembetulan pewartaan hutan simpan Bangi: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 24/02/1914: |BANGI FOREST RESERVE. ERROR IN NOTIFICATION PUBLISHED IN THE SELANGOR GOVERNMENT GAZETTE OF 31.12.1906. CORRECT NOTIFICATION OF:- (ARKIB NEGARA MALAYSIA).

Selangor, Federated Malay States,1926
Hutan-hutan simpan sekitar Bangi pada tahun 1926: Hutan Simpan Bangi, |Hutan Simpan Bukit Tunggul, |Hutan Simpan Ayer Itam (Puchong), |Hutan Simpan Telok (Sijangkang), |Hutan Simpan Kalambau, diapit oleh |Hutan Simpan Kuala Langat Utara dan |Hutan Simpan Kuala Langat Selatan, yang ketika ini masih dalam peringkat cadangan.

Hutan Simpan Kalambau ini, bersama Hutan Simpan Bangi, ada disebut di dalam suatu laporan pengumpulan spesimen botani (1924): “Burkill and Haniff collected a few plants in November, 1924, at Kajang, and the Forest Department has collected a little in the Kalambau Forest Reserve. In the Bangi Forest Reserve, and about Bangi, which is in the Negri Sembilan, the Forest Department has collected also.” (I. H. Burkill @ THE GARDENS' BULLETIN - STRAITS SETTLEMENTS, August, 1927: 4_4_04_3_01_y1927_v4p3_gbs_pg_113.pdf"BOTANICAL COLLECTORS, COLLECTIONS AND COLLECTING PLACES IN THE MALAY PENINSULA.", m.s.173)

1930: Penyelidikan Ladang Prang Besar

Sekitar tahun 1930, sebahagian kecil daripada hutan ini diberikan kepada Ladang Prang Besar (~10km di sebelah barat hutan ini, kini Putrajaya) untuk tujuan penyelidikan tanaman getah. Namun penyelidikan di situ tidak dapat bertahan lama akibat gangguan haiwan liar: “As far back as 1924, Gough established two seed gardens, each protected against pollinating agents from outside by some 25 chains of jungle. His diary recorded his objective: “To discover three types of improved breeding value”. These gardens situated in the Bangi jungle had to be abandoned because of attack by monkeys and other predators. Later seed gardens were successfully established within coconut plantations located on the Bagan Datoh peninsula in Lower Perak. Seedlings from the Prang Besar Isolation Garden (PBIG) and Prang Besar Gough Garden (PBIG-GG) have been widely planted in Malaysia and overseas.” (VD Nair, 1990-an: |"The Story of Prang Besar Estate").

LATAR PERISTIWA: Ladang Prang Besar.

1942-1970: Kegiatan Pembalakan

Pembalakan mula dijalankan di hutan simpan ini pada zaman pendudukan Jepun (1942-1945). Sebahagian besar hutan ini telah ditebang, dan digantikan dengan tanaman “gutta perca” atau “nyatoh taban merah”, sejenis getah berketahanan tinggi yang banyak digunakan sebagai kabel dasar laut serta peralatan lain di musim peperangan. Setelah perang tamat, tiada lagi kegiatan pembalakan di dalamnya, sehingga akhir 1960-an.

“Bangi Forest Reserve (Figures 1 and 2) is located in Selangor within the campus of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 35 km from Kuala Lumpur (2° 53’ N, 101° 52’ E). This forest has shrunk its size from 830 ha in early 1990’s (Ford and Davison 1995) to 500 ha in 1996 (Karim-Dakog et al. 1997) and 235 ha in 1997 (Ginny-Ng et al. 2005) and apparently only 100 ha is left at present. This forest has been logged a few times between 1942 and 1970s. In 1970s, this forest was given to the university for its campus. There were a series of road networks passes alongside the forest and recently, several new buildings have taken over some part of this forest from the last 830 ha remaining in 1990s. Hutan Pendidikan Alam (HPA) on the other hand is a new facility centre that has just been given to the Faculty of Science and Technology. This forest is located next to the oil palm plantation leased to the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB).”

Bangi Forest Reserve today
(Sumber: Farah Shafawati Mohd-Taib, Mariani Ramli, Norhayati Ahmad and Shukor Md-Nor, 2016: |"Species richness and turnover of birds in thirty years in the fragmented Bangi Forest Reserve, Selangor, Malaysia").

“The Bangi Forest Reserve (BFR) lies between 2° 54' N and 101° 4.5' E in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor Darul Ehsan, some 35 km south of Kuala Lumpur. This quartzite soft rock-based forest is bordered by the Langat river in the North and Kuala Lumpur-Seremban highway in the South. Topographically the area is moderately flat with several small streams and patches of swamps, at altitude of 40 m to 110 m above sea level. BFR received its status as a forest reserve on 31 December 1906 and was placed under strict jurisdiction Of the Selangor Forestry Department. Nevertheless unauthorized exploitation during the post World War II occurred and it was selectively logged during the Japanese occupation in 1942-1945 (Latiff 1981). It was again logged off for the second time in the late 1960's. The Japanese planted Palaquium gutta after the logging was completed as a source for “gutta perca”. In addition, native settlements were then allowed and Hevea brasiliensis trees Were subsequently planted on the fringes of this reserve. Prior to handing of this Reserve to the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) authorities in the 1970's, it had been the home of the Temuan community aborigines group.
Fig. 1: Aerial photograph of the Bangi Forest Reserve in 1970'sFig. 2: Map of Bangi Forest Reserve in 1970's showing the ecological research area (1). The section 2 and 3 are under very disturbed forests
Left: Fig. 1: Aerial photograph of the Bangi Forest Reserve in 1970's. Right: Fig. 2: Map of Bangi Forest Reserve in 1970's showing the ecological research area (1). The section 2 and 3 are under very disturbed forests

The original 881 ha BFR was classified into 832 ha of regenerating lowland forest, 31 ha Of fresh water swamps and 19 ha of rubber and Oil palm plantations (Fig. 1, 2). Most of these areas, especially plantation areas -and those near the main road, were developed to accommodate infra-Structures for the UKM campus facilities. Another 27 ha was later delineated for Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology (MINT) (then known as Pusat Penyelidikan Atom Tun Dr Ismail Or PUSPATI) and some 200 ha was leased to Palm Oil Research Institute Malaysia (PORIM) for oil palm plantation.”


(Sumber: Kamarudin Mat Salleh @ Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. (JTAS) Vol. 22 (2) Sep. 1999, m.s. 185-198: |"The Role and Function of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Permanent Forest Reserve in Research and Education").

“Bangi Permanent Forest Reserve (BPFR) lies between 20 54’ North and 1010 4.5’ East, in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor. This forest is bordered by the Langat river in the North and Kuala Lumpur-Seremban highway in the South and about 35 km south of Kuala Lumpur. Topographically, the area is moderately flat with an altitude of 40 to 110 m above sea level. It has several small streams which together with patches of seasonal freshwater swamps contain a flow of water, especially during the rainy season. The bedrock is made up of soft rock (Tjia 1981). This forest received its reserve status on December 31, 1906. Though this reserve falls under the strict jurisdiction of the Forestry Department, however during the Japanese occupation (1942-1945) it was logged and again logged off for the second time in the late 1960’s (Latiff 1981). The Japanese planted Palaquium gutta (Sapotaceae) as a source for ‘gutta perca’ after the first logging was completed. In addition settlements were created and rubber was planted on the fringes of this reserve. Today a portion of the reserve of about 105 ha of mixed vegetation is designated by the University as the Ecological Research Area. Another section of about the same area is now developed as the main campus of the university and several student housing areas and a few hundred hectares are being developed for various academic purposes. About 138 ha of the forest is left worth recommending for conservation (Latiff 1981), however this figure has decreased ever since.” (J.J. LAJUNI & A. LATIFF, 2013: |"Biomass and floristic composition of Bangi Permanent Forest Reserve, a twice-logged lowland dipterocarp forest in Peninsular Malaysia").

“As we trek down the path, I realized the surrounding plants are mainly palm species such as Palas, Bertam, Salak and Rattan. Low species diversity, high density and wide distribution suggested that the forest has been badly damaged in the past. During Japanese occupation (1942-1945), 90% of the forest was cleared. Although reforestration was done, the forest never recover its valuable timbers. Some common indications of reforested areas are presence of lowland ferns and Senduduk (Melastoma malabathricum).” (Melissa Wong, July 14, 2009: |"FST Open Day: Kembara Hutan Bangi").

LATAR PERISTIWA: Gutta Percha

Akhir 1950-an: Kediaman Keluarga Temuan

Sekitar akhir 1950-an, 4 buah keluarga Temuan berasal dari Bukit Dugang, Sepang, diketuai Batin Yut anak Jenang Pilis, mula menduduki kawasan hutan ini. Menjelang awal 1970-an, ia berkembang menjadi 22 keluarga, dengan jumlah ahli keluarga seramai kira-kira 100 orang: “Pada akhir tahun 1950-an empat keluarga orang Temuan dari kampung orang Asli Bukit Dugang, Sepang telah membuka sebahagian kecil daripada kawasan hutan simpan Bangi yang sekarang menjadi tapak Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Turut sama dalam pembukaan itu ialah Batin Yut anak Jenang Pilis yang sebelumnya menjadi ketua orang Asli di Bukit Dugang - Dialah yang mengetuai pembukaan kawasan hutan itu. …pada awal tahun 1970-an perkampungan Orang Temuan di Bangi yang bermula dengan empat keluarga itu telah berkembang menjadi 22 keluarga dan penduduknya kecil besar ada kira-kira 100 orang. Orang Asli yang berkenaan ada rumah, ada kerja, ada kebun getah dan pokok buah-buahan dan hidup pun agak senang. Mereka ingin terus menetap di tempat itu. Akan tetapi, nasib nampaknya tidak terus menyebelahi mereka. ” (Dr Mohamed Salleh Lamry, 2005: |"Mangsa Pembangunan: Orang Temuan di Sungai Buah dan Bukit Tunggul, Sepang, Selangor").

1970-1972: Pewartaan Tapak UKM

1970 - 1972-01-12: Penyahwartaan

Sekitar 1970-1972, Hutan Simpan Bangi telah dinyahwartakan, lalu diwartakan sebagai tapak Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). Keluasan hutan ketika itu ialah 882 hektar, dan terdiri daripada:-

  • 832 hektar hutan sekunder
  • 31 hektar paya air tawar, beralur kecil. Sebahagiannya anak Sungai Bangi di sebelah selatan, manakala sebahagian lagi (termasuk Alur Ilmu kini) mengalir ke Sungai Langat di sebelah utara.
  • 19 hektar ladang.

“The original 881 ha BFR was classified into 832 ha of regenerating lowland forest, 31 ha Of fresh water swamps and 19 ha of rubber and Oil palm plantations (Fig. 1, 2). Most of these areas, especially plantation areas -and those near the main road, were developed to accommodate infra-Structures for the UKM campus facilities. Another 27 ha was later delineated for Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology (MINT) (then known as Pusat Penyelidikan Atom Tun Dr Ismail Or PUSPATI) and some 200 ha was leased to Palm Oil Research Institute Malaysia (PORIM) for oil palm plantation.”

(Sumber: Kamarudin Mat Salleh @ Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. (JTAS) Vol. 22 (2) Sep. 1999, m.s. 185-198: |"The Role and Function of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Permanent Forest Reserve in Research and Education").

Sejarah pemilihan tapak: “Usaha mendapat lokasi terbaik dilakukan sejak pengumuman pada 15 Mac 1969, oleh Menteri Pelajaran Encik Khir Johari semasa merasmikan Kongres Universiti Kebangsaan di Fakulti Pendidikan di Universiti Malaya, bahawa Universiti Kebangsaan akan didirikan pada 1970 (Matlamat Universiti Kebangsaan: Tahun 1970, Dewan Masyarakat, April 1969: 6-7). Sejak pengumuman dibuat, usaha mendapat tapak yang paling sesuai dilakukan. Berbagai cadangan timbul dan tawaran dilakukan, antaranya cadangan menggunakan Trendek Camp di Melaka yang menarik – di tepi laut dan sudah ada infra-struktur dan bangunan, Kerajaan negeri Terengganu menwarkan kawasan negeri yang berpantai memanjang itu untuk dijadikan kampus UKM, Kawasan banjaran Titiwangsa di Pahang juga ditawarkan, bahkan Shah Alam yang pada masa itu baru dibuka dan belum maju juga turut ditawarkan.

Perkara yang menjadi perkiraan ialah kemudahan pembelajaran dan komunikasi serta berdaya maju. Tun Razak Perdana Menteri Malaysia yang juga menjadi Canselor Pertama UKM memainkan peranan penting bersama Jawatankuasa Penaja UKM di dalam memilih tapak tetap UKM. Sehingga bulan Januari 1972 berita tersebar bahawa `Bangi` satu kawasan hijau di Hulu Langat tidak jauh dari Kajang menjadi lokasi pilihan, iaitu kawasan yang sebahaginnya masih hutan dara, manakala kawasan berdekatan dengannya yang merupakan kawasan kelapa sawit dan getah dipilih bagi membangunkan Bandar sebagai pemangkin bagi kemajuan UKM. Tanah seluas 2,300 ekar dikenal pasti bagi dijadikan Kampus Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
” (Dr Shafie Abu Bakar, May 30, 2014: | "Bangi Jadi Pilihan").

Sumber lain: “Ada beberapa tempat ditimbulkan, bahkan mendapat tawaran dari negeri-negeri untuk menyediakan tapak tetap UKM. Misalnya Melaka bersedia menawarkan tapak di Trendak Camp, Shah Alam sebagai ibu negeri Selangor yang baru dibuka juga pernah menjadi lokasi tawaran, iaitu di tapak UITM kini, sebelum ITM didirikan, negeri-negeri di Pantai Timur juga bersedia memperuntukkan tapak bagi UKM. Namun yang penting apakah tapak-tapak berkenaan berdaya maju dan mampu meletakkan UKM pada peta kemajuan dan keunggulan yang diharapkan. Perkara yang penting ditekankan, bahawa UKM seharusnya berada dilokasi strategik yang memudahkan perhubungan, mempunyai berbagai kemudahan dan sudah tentulah mempunyai tanah yang luas bagi perkembangan pada masa hadapan. Adalah dilihat UKM mesti berada di kawasan Kuala Lumpur bagi memenuhi segala keperluan. Selepas timbul berbagai polimik dan cadangan yang pro dan kontra, akhirnya dua tahun selepas UKM ditubuhkan Datuk Abdul Razak Hussein Perdana Menteri Malaysia yang juga Canselor Pertama UKM mengumumkan (1972) bahawa tempat pilihan bagi tapak UKM ialah di negeri Selangor dengan lokasi tepatnya, ialah di Bangi, berhampiran dengan Kajang, di Hulu Langat, iaitu jauh lebih kurang 18 batu dari Kuala Lumpur. Tanah seluas 2,709.2 ekar disediakan sebagai tapak UKM (Muhammad Ali Kamaruddin, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia – Sejarah Penubuhan, Bangi, Penerbitan UKM, 2006: 194).” (Dr Shafie Abu Bakar, January 6, 2018: |"BANGI DALAM PETA AZALI").

Di dalam teks ucapan Tun Abdul Razak di suatu majlis jamuan Fellows of the Royal College of Surgeons Edinburgh di Lake Club, Kuala Lumpur pada 12 Februari 1972, beliau menyebut tentang harapan beliau untuk mendirikan sebuah Fakulti Perubatan UKM, setelah kampusnya berpindah ke Bangi kelak: “I mentioned earlier on of my commitment with the Universiti Kebangsaan. It is my hope that by the time the students move out to the campus in Bangi, we shall have by then a vigorous and forward looking Medical Faculty. In this respect, I think the Vice-Chancellor, Datuk Dr Arifin, will have to depend on some of your present to render him assistance in the planning of the Faculty and later in providing the manpower to help train our future Surgeons. I personally regard this as a great challenge and I am confident some of you here will gallantly respond to this national cause.” (JABATAN ARKIB NEGARA MALAYSIA, 21/07/1986: |"UCAPAN-UCAPAN TUN HAJI ABDUL RAZAK BIN HUSSEIN 1972" (PDF).

Lawatan para pemimpin negara ke tapak UKM: “Oleh kerana Bangi adalah di bawah negeri Selangor, maka rundingan perlu dilakukan dengan kerajaan Negeri Selangor yang sultan Selangor pada masa itu ialah Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah dan Menteri Besarnya ialah Dato` Harun Idris. Lantaran itu Tun Razak selaku Canselor UKM yang juga Perdana Menteri Malaysia turun melawat ke kawasan yang dicadangkan bagi Kampus UKM Bangi, diiringi oleh Y.A.B. Dato` Harun Idris Menteri Besar Selangor dan Dato`Dr. Anuwar Mahmud selaku Naib Canselor UKM. Berikutnya D.Y.M.M. Sultan Selangor Tuanku Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah turun melawat Kampus UKM di Bangi dengan diiringi Dato` Dr. Anwar Mahmud Naib Canselor UKM, Profesor Dr. Ghazali Abdul Rahman Timbalan Naib Canselor UKM dan pegawai-pegawai.” (Dr Shafie Abu Bakar, May 30, 2014: | "Bangi Jadi Pilihan").

Lawatan Tun RazakLawatan D.Y.M.M. Sultan Selangor
Kiri: Lawatan Tun Razak (Dr Shafie Abu Bakar, May 10, 2015: |"Tapak Masjid Al-Umm Setua Bandar Baru Bangi"). Kanan: Lawatan D.Y.M.M. Sultan Selangor (Dr Shafie Abu Bakar, May 30, 2014: | "Bangi Jadi Pilihan").

Lawatan Tun Razak
Gambar ini mungkin diambil ketika lawatan Tun Razak yang sama di atas (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia @ Parlimen Malaysia, 2020: |"Laporan Tahunan Dan Penyata Kewangan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Bagi Tahun 2018").

Nama asal tapak UKM: “Menurut seorang ahli sejarah bernama Shahabudin Ahmad, nama asal tapak dimana kampus UKM Bangi dibangunkan ialah 'Bukit Puteri'. Pada asalnya kawasan ini didiami oleh masyarakat orang asal dari keturunan Temuan, namun demi pembangunan UKM, masyarakat ini telah berpindah secara dibawah satu akta pemindahan mandatori yang diperkenalkan oleh kerajaan pada tahun 1974. Namun UKM tetap menghargai suku kaum tersebut dengan cara menamakan salah satu jalan didalam kampus UKM Bangi sebagai 'Jalan Temuan', iaitu jalan dimana terletaknya Pusat Pengajian Bahasa dan Lingusitik, Fakulti Pendidikan dan Jabatan Pengurusan Pembangunan.

- Sumber: Nadi Bangi, Jilid 2 (bil. 2), Julai 1978. ms. 8”
(Harith Faruqi Sidek @ Kitab Tawarikh 2.0, February 06, 2013: |"Nama asal tapak Kampus UKM Bangi").

1973: Pembangunan Kampus UKM

“Konsep pembangunan Kampus Bangi pada awal pembangunannya (1973) adalah dpengaruhi falsafah yang dikatakan `Liberal` - mungkin istilah ini tidak tepat, maksudnya `Pendidikan Integrated` yang diperkenalkan sejak awal pembukaan UKM di Jalan Pantai Baru. Maksud `Pendidikan Integrated` bahawa pelajar di dalam satu fakulti dikehendaki mengambil pelajaran dari luar bidangnya. Sebagai contoh pelajar sastera dan pengajian Islam dikehendaki mengambil mata pelajaran sains dan metametik menurut kursus dan unit yang ditentukan, begitu pula pelajar sains dikehendaki mengambil mata pelajaran sastera dan pengajian Islam. Di dalam konteks ini bangunan yang didirikan hendaklah berdekatan yang memungkinkan pelajar bergerak ke kuliah-kuliah dengan segera. Lantaran itu kita lihat kampus UKM yang begitu luas (2.300 ekar), tetapi pembinaan bangunannya dalam kawasan yang sempit mengelilingi aliran anak sungai di tengahnya. Keliling inilah terdapat bangunan pentadbiran, Fakulti Islam, Institut Alam dan Tamadun Melayu, Fakulti Sastera, Fakulti Sains, Hal Ehwal Pelajar, Perpustakaan, Fakulti Ekonomi dan Perdagangan.” (Dr Shafie Abu Bakar, October 28, 2014: |"Pembangunan Fizikal: Perlunya Hospital Dan Wisma Citra UKM Di Kampus Bangi").

“The Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia campus was coordinated by Abdullah Bakri. This was the first university building in Malaysia which started to exercise some aesthetic coordination between the various buildings.” (Esmawee Haji Endut, 1993: |"Traditional Malaysian built forms : a study of the origins, main building types, development of building forms, design principles and the application of traditional concepts in modern buildings": Volume II, m.s.324).

Tapak pembangunan Kampus UKM Bangi 21 Ogos 1976Lawatan Canselor UKM
Kiri: Tapak pembangunan Kampus UKM Bangi 21 Ogos 1976 (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia - UKM @ Facebook, 20 Mei 2016: |"Tapak pembangunan Kampus UKM Bangi 21 Ogos 1976").
Kanan: Lawatan Canselor UKM pada 22 Ogos 1976 (Sahidan Jaafar @ Utusan Malaysia, 20 Mac 2019: |"Penubuhan UKM kemuncak aspirasi rakyat" @ Koleksi Arkib & Khas, Perpustakaan Tun Seri Lanang, UKM, 17 Mac 2021).

Pandangan dari udara kampus di Bangi, 27 Julai 1976Work in progress: An aerial view of UKM’s main campus in Bangi when it was under construction then.
Pemandangan sebahagian daripada tapak di atas, dari jarak dekat. (Kiri: Harith Faruqi Sidek @ Kitab Tawarikh 2.0, February 06, 2013: |"Nama asal tapak Kampus UKM Bangi". Kanan: Rebecca Rajaendram @ The Star, 25 May 2014: |"The rise and rise of UKM").

Gambar Pembinaan UKM
Pemandangan kawasan yang sama, ketika di dalam peringkat pembinaan yang selanjutnya. Kelihatan beberapa buah bangunan kampus telah hampir siap didirikan. (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia @ Parlimen Malaysia, 2020: |"Laporan Tahunan Dan Penyata Kewangan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Bagi Tahun 2018").

Kampus Induk UKM - 1990
Kampus Induk UKM - 1990 (Dr Shafie Abu Bakar, May 21, 2014: |"Puisi Penulis `Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia` Diterbitkan Dalam Buku `Gagasan Perjuangan Penubuhan UKM`").

1974-02-10: Kontroversi Pembalakan di Tapak UKM

Pada 10 Februari 1974, hampir 5,000 pelajar dari pusat-pusat pengajian tinggi di sekitar Kuala Lumpur telah hadir ke sebuah perjumpaan di Dewan Tunku Canselor Universiti Malaya. Perancangan asalnya adalah sesi dialog dengan Menteri Besar Selangor ketika itu, Dato' Harun Idris, berkaitan dakwaan kegiatan pembalakan tanpa permit oleh Syarikat Dengkil Sdn Bhd di Hutan Simpan Bangi, iaitu tapak pembinaan UKM. Namun pihak Menteri Besar menolak dan mencadangkan ia ditunda ke tarikh 12 Mac di Kajang. Perjumpaan tersebut diteruskan sebagai suatu sesi pembentangan beberapa orang wakil pelajar dan penduduk Bangi. Antara pembentangnya ialah Halim Arshat (Presiden Persatuan Mahasiswa Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia - PMUKM), Hishamuddin Rais (wakil Persatuan Mahasiswa Universiti Malaya - UM), Idris Jusi (Presiden Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar-Pelajar Malaysia), Ibrahim Ali (wakil Persatuan Siswa Institut Teknoloj(g)i Mara - ITM). Antara yang hadir dan turut menyokong ialah Encik Sidek Fadhil (wakil Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar-Pelajar Islam Malaysia - PKPIM), para pelajar Universiti Pertanian, dan penduduk Bangi. Turut menyatakan sokongan ialah ketua cawangan UMNO Bangi, Zainul Harun.

CATATAN 1: Suatu ringkasan latar belakang peristiwa: “Sementara itu kerja-kerja tanah yang berlangsung mulai tahun 1973 itu menimbulkan kekocohan. Untuk membangun kampus dan mendirikan bangunan terpaksa dibersihkan bagi tapak-tapak bangunan. Sebenarnya selepas pengumuman Bangi sebagai Kampus UKM, ramai yang datang melihat dan meninjau. Melihat kepada kawasan dibersihkan, timbul tuduhan terhadap orang politik berkuasa di negeri Selangor sebagai mengambil kesempatan mengeluarkan balak-balak sebagai habuan. Perkara ini menjadi isu kepada Persatuan mahasiswa UKM (PMUKM) yang turut datang melawat dan mendapati banyak balak-balak dikeluarkan. Ini menyebabkan pihak PMUKM menganjurkan demontrasi terhadap yang mengambil kesempatan. PMUKM mau keaslian kampus dipelihara dan tidak memotong pokok-pokok sembarangan, kecuali jika perlu. Isu ini berlarutan hingga terjadi tuduhan dan ketegangan dengan orang-orang politik peringkat negeri.” (Dr Shafie Abu Bakar, May 31, 2014: | "Fenomena Bangi-UKM").

CATATAN 2: Kemungkinan liputan ini adalah antara liputan-liputan yang dirujuk sebagai "Isu Bangi" atau "Bangi Affair", yang dijadikan contoh dakwaan kegiatan subversif terhadap pengarah Berita Harian ketika itu, Abdul Samad Ismail.

Hutan Simpan Kini

“Setelah ia diserahkan kepada UKM, sebahagian besar daripadanya telah tidak dibangunkan dan disimpan seperti asal. Semenjak hutan ini diisytiharkan tapak tetap universiti pada tahun 1970, para pensyarah dan pelajar daripada Fakulti Sains, terutama sekali daripada Jabatan Biologi telah menjadikan hutan simpan bangi sebagai kerja lapangan dan juga tapak kajian untuk projek tahun kepujian. Pelbagai kajian dijalankan seperti mengkaji ekologi, komposisi flora, spesis yang penting daripada segi botani dan sebagainya. (Abdul Latiff Mohamad(1990). Kajian Ekologi dan Biologi Hutan Simpan Bangi)” (Koleksi Arkib & Khas, Perpustakaan Tun Seri Lanang, UKM @ Facebook, 18 Januari 2021: |"Hutan Simpan Bangi").
Hutan Simpan Kekal UKMPokok Jelutong yang menjadi ikon HPA UKM telah mati sepenuhnya...
Hutan Simpan Kekal UKM (Hutan Pendidikan Alam), kini.
Gambar kanan: “Pokok Jelutong yang menjadi ikon HPA UKM telah mati sepenuhnya…” (Anuar Ahmad, 07 September, 2013: |"Hutan Pendidikan Alam UKM...Khazanah Berharga Yang Semakin Dilupakan..").

“Bangi forest reserve (Hutan Simpan Bangi, adjacent to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Bangi campus, is a lawland secondary dipterocarp forest with a size of 100 hectares, which provides lush greenary freshness to UKM Bangi campus. Small forest reserve, ponds, swamps and hill slopes can be found in the forest reverse. The forest reserve is accessed via a 2 KM jungle trail for visitors to enjoy the beauty of flora and fauna of the forest reserve. Bukit Rupa is the highest peak of the forest reserve with an altitude of 105 m from sea level. The Fernarium located within the forest reserve is a site for collection of many fern species collected by researchers and scientist at UKM. Also situtated in the forest reverse is Hutan Pendidikan Alam UKM, which is a centre for cocurriculum activities of various UKM organizations. The co-curriculum centre is equipped with halls, bathroom, camp site and other amenities for training. Bangi Forest reverse houses more than 600 plant species and more than 800 faunal species including small mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, insects etc. The richness of flora and fauna, and the various ecosystems have made Bangi Forest reserve an excellent site for teaching, research and recreation in UKM.” (Melissa Wong, July 14, 2009: |"FST Open Day: Kembara Hutan Bangi").

Sungai Anak Bangi

“Sumber air Sungai Langat di hadapan UKM sepanjang tujuh kilometer bermula dari anak Sungai Bangi di dalam hutan simpan UKM dan melalui Alur Ilmu sebelum memasuki ke Sungai Langat. Sepanjang lima kilometer anak sungai itu berada dalam kawasan hutan simpan sementara dua kilometer lagi melalui Alur Ilmu hingga ke Sungai Langat.” (Kurniawati Kamarudin / Bernama @ Utusan Borneo, 2018-02-04: |"Usaha menghidupkan semangat Sungai Langat".

Lembangan Sungai Langat, 2001
Lembangan Sungai Langat, 2001 (Mohd Ekhwan Toriman, Zulkifli Yusop, Mazlin Mokhtar, Hafizan Juahir, 2006: |"Application GIS for detecting changes of Sungai Langat channel").

“The study was conducted at Sungai Anak Bangi in Bangi Forest Reserve, Selangor (02° 55′ 44.0″ N latitude and 101° 47′ 12.6″E longitude, Figure 1). The total catchment area for Bangi Forest Reserve is 34 km2, while for Sungai Air Anak Bangi is 3.7 km2.”

Sungai Anak Bangi
“Figure 1: Topography and location of sampling points of Sungai Anak Bangi

The geology of the area is predominantly of granitic rocks. The soil texture ranges from coarse to fine sandy clay with Muchong-Seremban being the major soil series. The land cover of the study area is mostly hill dipterocarp forest. This forest has been logged in late 1960s and early 1970s. Towards downstream, the catchment has been transformed by oil palm plantations and development of Pekan Bangi Lama (Figure 2).”

Persekitaran Sungai Anak Bangi Kini
“Figure 2: Existing land use surrounding the study catchment”

(Mohd Ekhwan Toriman, Md. Pauzi Abdullah, Mazlin Bin Mokhtar, Muhamad Barzani Gasim, Othman Karim @ The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, Vol 14 No 1 (2010): 12 - 23: |"SURFACE EROSION AND SEDIMENT YIELDS ASSESSMENT FROM SMALL UNGAUGED CATCHMENT OF SUNGAI ANAK BANGI SELANGOR").

Alur Ilmu

“Air yang mengalir di Alur Ilmu dibekalkan dari Hutan Simpan Kekal dan Hutan Pendidikan Alam UKM dan mengalir ke kawasan pembinaan fakulti-fakulti dan terus mengalir ke Sungai Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. Alur ini telah diubahsuai dengan simen konkrit berasaskan saliran semulajadi sejak pembinaan kompleks bangunan kampus UKM Bangi pada awal tahun 1970-an (rujuk Rajah 1).
Alur Ilmu
Alur Ilmu dibina bertujuan untuk pengawalan aliran air hujan, air bawah tanah dan apa-apa bendalir dari kampus UKM Bangi (lingkungan pertama) terus ke Sungai Langat [11]. Walau bagaimanapun, jumlah hujan yang diterima dan proses hakisan dari kawasan hulu serta kesan pembinaan bangunan baru telah melumpuhkan perangkap sedimen sedia ada lalu mengubah nilai kualiti air dan corak luahan sedia ada. Di samping itu, apabila hujan, air larian permukaan berlaku dan membawa bahan-bahan mengalir ke saluran yang tersedia dan terus ke dalam Alur Ilmu. Sisa kumbahan dan air basuhan dari kafeteria juga didapati tersalur ke alur ini tanpa rawatan sebelum di lepaskan ke Sungai Langat.”

(Sumber: Haslinur Md Din, Mohd Ekhwan Toriman, Mazlin Mokhtar, Rahmah Elfithri, Nor Azlina Ab.Aziz, Nur Munirah Abdullah, Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin, 2012: |"KEPEKATAN BEBAN BAHAN PENCEMAR DI ALUR ILMU KAMPUS UKM BANGI: KAEDAH MIN KEPEKATAN PERISTIWA (EMC)").

1996-2002: Pembinaan Institut Kemahiran Dan Latihan Alam Sekitar (IKLAS)

“EiMAS occupies an area of about 10 acres and it is located within the campus of the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor. Agreement to construct EiMAS in UKM Campus was concluded with the signing of the memorandum of understanding between the Department of Environment (DOE) and UKM on 30th July 1996. Construction of EiMAS was managed by the Public Works Department, Malaysia that was also involved with the preparation of the design, tendering and appointment of the contractor and also responsible for monitoring the project. The building was finally completed on 28th May 2001 after a period of 1 year 11 months ad 21 days from the date of acquisition of the site on 7th June 1999. The establishment of EiMAS is a historical landmark. Apart from enhancing the manpower development programme needed for controling and preventing environmental pollution, EiMAS’s activities will also contribute towards assisting DOE in raising the level of public awareness on the importance of environmental conservation efforts. Programmes implemented by EiMAS will provide opportunities for DOE to partner other interested parties especially the industrial sector in Malaysia, which amongst others are responsible for environmental pollution in the country. Its location and proximity to the institution of higher learning i.e. UKM will also provide the opportunity to establish a close bilateral relation with the university in view of the fact that EiMAS’s activities will need the cooperatin and support on continuos basis from researchers and academia from institutions of higher learning both locally and abroad.” (Department of Environment, Malaysia, 2015: |"EiMAS: About Us").

“Environment Institute of Malaysia (EiMAS) was officially opened on 2 April 2002 by Dato ‘Seri Law Hieng Ding, Minister of Science, Technology and Environment, Malaysia. EiMAS establishment is an important development for the Department of Environment (DOE) as the need to enhance knowledge and skills in the public and private sector staff in dealing with environmental management. DOE has taken important steps to equip staff with the necessary knowledge and skills through courses conducted in EiMAS. As a vision of the establishment of this institute, EiMAS determined to be a Centre of Excellence for Environmental Management in Malaysia. EiMAS building was completed on 28 May 2001 with the concept of ‘resort’. The design theme of this building is adapted from characteristics of Malaysian arts and culture. EiMAS building also equipped with a variety facilities such as training rooms, dormitories, cafeteria, recreation center, library and auditorium. The participants not only gain knowledge and skills through courses but also peace of mind through beautiful and refreshing environment. The EiMAS building become the permanent location for the courses conducted by the DOE except for those courses that involve field work and sample collection.” (Department of Environment, Malaysia, 2015: |"EiMAS: History of EiMAS").

LATAR PERISTIWA: Institut Alam Sekitar Malaysia / Environment Institute of Malaysia (EiMAS) (1996-2002).

Nasib Penduduk Asal

Hutan Simpan Bangi ini telah didiami oleh masyarakat Orang Asli Temuan, sejak akhir tahun 1950-an: “Pada akhir tahun 1950-an empat keluarga orang Temuan dari kampung orang Asli Bukit Dugang, Sepang telah membuka sebahagian kecil daripada kawasan hutan simpan Bangi yang sekarang menjadi tapak Universiti Kebagsaan Malaysia. Turut sama dalam pembukaan itu ialah Batin Yut anak Jenang Pilis yang sebelumnya menjadi ketua orang Asli di Bukit Dugang- Dialah yang mengetuai pembukaan kawasan hutan itu. …pada awal tahun 1970-an perkampungan Orang Temuan di Bangi yang bermula dengan empat keluarga itu telah berkembang menjadi 22 keluarga dan penduduknya kecil besar ada kira-kira 100 orang. Orang Asli yang berkenaan ada rumah, ada kerja, ada kebun getah dan pokok buah-buahan dan hidup pun agak senang. Mereka ingin terus menetap di tempat itu. Akan tetapi, nasib nampaknya tidak terus menyebelahi mereka. ” (Dr Mohamed Salleh Lamry, 2005: |"Mangsa Pembangunan: Orang Temuan di Sungai Buah dan Bukit Tunggul, Sepang, Selangor").

Ketika pembinaan pesat UKM sepanjang tahun 1974 ini, masyarakat Temuan di sini telah dipindahkan oleh pihak kerajaan ke kawasan hutan di Sungai Buah dan Hutan Simpan Bukit Tunggul, berhampiran pekan Bangi (Lama). Namun pada tahun 1993, kawasan tersebut telah diambilalih pula oleh sebuah syarikat swasta untuk pembinaan padang golf. Nama kawasan tersebut juga telah diubah kepada Bukit Unggul Golf Country Resort (BUGCR).

Bukit Dugang - Bangi Forest Reserve (Mapcarta)
Perpindahan masyarakat Temuan, dari Hutan Simpan Bangi (Bangi Forest Reserve) di sebelah timur, ke Kampung Orang Asli Sungai Buah dan Hutan Simpan Bukit Tunggul di selatan (kini Bukit Unggul Golf & Country Club). (Sumber peta: Mapcarta). Di sebelah barat adalah petempatan asal mereka di Bukit Dugang (Sumber peta: Mapcarta).

“Pada 1974 tanah yang mereka duduki di kawasan Bangi diambil oleh kerajaan untuk pembinaan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Selepas itu, mereka berpindah ke kawasan hutan Sungai Buah dan Bukit Tunggul, kira-kira 10 km dari situ. Bagaimanapun, pada awal 1993 kawasan Bukit Tunggul diambil alih pula oleh sebuah syarikat swasta untuk pembinaan padang golf. Walaupun pihak syarikat ada menyediakan rumah, tetapi pihak kerajaan tidak memberi tanah gantian. Rumah yang disediakan itu juga tidak sempurna. Akibatnya sebahagian orang Temuan di Bukit Tunggul telah berpindah ke tempat lain, dan sebahagian lagi bertahan di kawasan belukar di lereng bukit tersebut. Sementara itu, orang-orang yang masih tinggal di Sungai Buah sentiasa merasa tidak selamat, kerana tanah yang mereka duduki masih belum diberi hak milik.” (Dr Mohamed Salleh Lamry, 2005: |"Mangsa Pembangunan: Orang Temuan di Sungai Buah dan Bukit Tunggul, Sepang, Selangor").

“8.120 There was also apparent injustice towards the Orang Asli who used to live and forage in a large area but were moved out – some without any regard for their conditions – to make way for the rapid commercial development. The case of the Temuan from Bukit Tunggul, Dengkil (A270) who were asked to moved twice – first when the area was given to the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (500 acres) and then to Bukit Unggul Resort (1378 acres). With only 20 acres of un-gazetted area for their settlement remaining, the community fear that their traditional community may soon disappear.
….
8.128 In case A270 (Bukit Tunggul, Selangor), while compensation was paid, this was inadequate to ensure that the Temuans concerned could build a new life or maintain their traditional ways of life. The witness from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (W14) said of the miserable relocation exercise in the 1970s: “UKM paid the compensation amounting RM810,985.25 to those who lived on the land and requested them to move.” W13, a representative of Bukit Unggul Resort, said that RM2 million was set aside to mainly build houses (within the 20-acre plot) but complained that Orang Asli are still entering the forest areas now belonging to the Resort.”
(SUHAKAM, April 2013: |"Malaysia: Report of the National Inquiry into the Land Rights of Indigenous Peoples", m.s.162-163).

“Tanah yang diperuntukkan kepada UKM sebanyak 2,300 ekar tidak seluruhnya hutan asal yang tidak diteroka. Terdapat kumpulan Orang Asli yang tinggal di bahagian utama Kampus UKM, manakala terdapat pula orang-orang Melayu yang tinggal di tepian jalan dari bahagian berdekatan dengan Hentian Keretapi Sungai Tangkas (kini UKM) memanjang tepi jalan hingga selekoh ke Jalan Dengkel yang dari Sungai Tangkas hingga ke sini (kiri) termasuk di bawah kawasan Kampus UKM. Melalui rundingan dan pampasan Orang Asli bersetuju berpindah ke kaki Bukit Tunggul (kini Bukit Unggul), manakala bagi orang-orang Melayu diberi pampasan dan lot tanah di Sungai Tangkas. Sebahagian daripada mereka diganti dengan tanah dan pampasan di Kg. Baharu, Pekan Bangi.”

(Petikan artikel dan gambar: Dr Shafie Abu Bakar, May 31, 2014: |"Fenomena Bangi-UKM").

Pada tahun 1970, wujud kampung orang asli di Sungai Buah. Hal ini demikian kerana, penempatan orang asli ini pada asalnya terletak di UKM, namun apabila ditubuhkan Fakulti Undang-Undang di UKM, penempatan mereka terpaksa dipindahkan ke kampung Sungai Buah.” (KAMPUNG SUNGAI BUAH: 25 Oktober 2015: |"SEJARAH KAMPUNG SUNGAI BUAH").

Menurut Felo Utama Institut Alam Sekitar dan Pembangunan (LESTARI) Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Professor Emeritus Dato’ Dr Hood Salleh: “… pembangunan dan perkembangan infrastruktur UKM pada tahun-tahun 1970an yang membawa perubahan kepada kaum Asal di sekitar Bangi pada tahun 1974 apabila kawasan kediaman mereka diambil alih untuk bangunan-bangunan baru UKM. Kerajaan juga telah menggubal satu Akta pada tahun 1974 yang mensyaratkan pemindahan mandatori orang asal di kawasan Hulu Langat untuk membangunkan UKM. Orang Asli di situ mendakwa mereka tidak diberi pertimbangan ketika diarah berpindah ke tempat lain. Walaupun diberi pampasan dan perumahan baru, mereka berasa kecil hati kerana kawasan hutan rimba kediaman asal mereka mempunyai hubungan rapat dengan kehidupan harian mereka.” (Saiful Bahri Kamaruddin @ Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 18 OKTOBER 2012: |"Kaum Asli Perlu Dibawa Berunding Sebelum Sesuatu Projek Melibatkan Kehidupan Mereka Dilaksanakan").

Sumber lain: Zawawi Ibrahim, 2016: |"Anthropologizing Human Insecurities: Narrating the Subjugated Discourse of Indigenes on the Deterritorialized Landscapes of the Malaysian Nation-State", m.s.38).

LATAR PERISTIWA: Hutan Simpan Bukit Tunggul.

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hutan_simpan_bangi.txt · Last modified: 2022/05/05 03:24 by sazli