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Broome Estate

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Cebisan Sejarah

1906-04-23: Ladang Getah D. Sutherland

Permohonan sebidang tanah seluas 308 ekar di Bangi, oleh seorang usahawan dari Australia, D. Sutherland, untuk tujuan penanaman getah. Beliau telah pun membina sebuah rumah di sekitarnya, serta mula menebang kawasan hutan di situ. Tanahnya berbentuk segi tiga, diapit oleh Jalan Reko di sebelah timur, tapak jalan baru (kemungkinan Jalan Bangi-Salak (Dibina sekitar 1907) di sebelah selatan, dan kawasan paya di sebelah baratnya:-

“…I have received an application by Mr.D.Sutherland for 308 acres (approximately) of State land near Bangi for rubber cultivation.

2. I put up a tracing which however does not supply such information as there are few holdings in the vicinity.

3. Mr. Sutherland has lately come from Australia with the idea of acquiring a moderate area to open and work himself with his own capital. He is willing to give reference to his Bank in Australia and informs me that it is not his intention to go into partnership with any other person or to float a company. He has already made arrangements, in the event of his application being appoved to build a small house at Bangi and start felling and clearing the land.

4. It will be seen that the land is of a triangular shape one side having a long road frontage on the new Bangi Reko' road and one side having frontage on the trace of the new road for construction of which it is proposed to take provision in the Estimates for 1907. This shape is made necessary by the nature of the ground as there are swamps to the West which are of no use to a rubber planter. No one wishing to take up more that a small block could take the land in any other shape.

5. I recommend that this application being approved on the terms laid down for 1st Quality Land. I also ask, if the application is approved, that occupation may be allowed before survey, and that the land may be surveyed in the shape shown on the tracing.
… - A(ctin)g: District Officer,
Ulu Langat.


(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR @ Arkib Negara Malaysia, 23/04/1906: |"APPLICATION BY MR. D. SUTHERLAND FOR 308 ACRES OF AGRICULTURAL LAND NEAR BANGI").

CATATAN: Lokasi tanah ini belum dapat dikenalpasti, kemungkinan lokasinya di kawasan bertanda biru di dalam peta-peta di bawah. Ada kemungkinan ini adalah antara kawasan ladang getah terawal di Bangi, dan bakal menjadi sebahagian daripada Broome Estate. Kini kawasan ini telah dimajukan oleh Mah Sing Group Berhad, sebagai Southville City.

Kemungkinan kawasan ladang D. Sutherland (ditanda biru) pada tahun 1904, 1924, dan kini
Kemungkinan kawasan ladang D. Sutherland (ditanda biru) pada tahun 1904, 1924, dan kini.
Kiri: Berdasarkan Peta negeri Selangor, tahun 1900-an (Edinburgh Geographical Institute, 1904 @ Yale University Library - Digital Collections: |"Selangor, Federated Malay States, 1904 / John Bartholomew & Co ; W.T. Wood, chief draftman").
Tengah: Berdasarkan Peta negeri Selangor, tahun 1929 (Edward Stanford @ F.M.S. Survey Department, 1929: |"1929 F.M.S. Wall Map of Selangor (Kuala Lumpur)").
Kanan: Berdasarkan Mapcarta, kini.

1910: Anglo-Asiatic Rubber and Finance Trust

Pada awal tahun 1910, Anglo-Asiatic Rubber and Finance Trust telah ditubuhkan, dan mengambil alih Broome and Bangi Rubber estates. Ketika itu ia merangkumi beberapa ladang getah seluas 2,040 ekar, dan 1,000 ekar daripadanya telah pun ditanam getah berusia sehingga 8 tahun (mungkin juga termasuk ladang D. Sutherland). Pada 13 Mei 1910, badan ini turut menubuhkan Beranang (Selangor) Rubber Plantation: “Since the formation of the company the directors have successfully floated the Beranang (Selangor) Rubber Plantation, Limited. In addition to the cash profit the company holds an option over 100,000 shares of the uncalled capital of the Beranang Company at par, for a period of four years from May 13, 1910. Mr. Arch Taylor (one of the directors) paid a visit to the East early in the year and secured an option on the Broome and Bangi Rubber Estate, in Selangor, F.M.S. This estate has an area of 2,040 acres, over 1,000 acres of which are planted with Para rubber trees eight years old and under.” (The Straits Times, 18 October 1911, Page 12: |"Anglo-Asiatic Rubber and Finance Trust").

1911-05-01: Wabak Cacar

1911-05-01: Wabak cacar telah melanda para pekerja Ladang Broome di Bangi. Menurut Pegawai Tinggi Perubatan Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, dan Pahang ketika itu: “… a modified case of small-pox in a Tamil cooley has occurred at Broome Estate, Bangi on April 24th among one of the two coolies arrived there from Port Swettenham that day. All necessary precautions have been taken.”

SMALL POX AT BROOME ESTATE, BANGIBROOME ESTATE, ULU LANGAT. INSPECTION REPORTS ON

1911-05-05: Menurut laporan susulan di Ladang Sungei Marap (Ladang Sungai Merab, ketika itu sebahagian daripada Ladang Broome), 17 daripada sejumlah 400 orang pekerja di situ telah dijangkiti dan dihantar ke Kajang untuk rawatan.

Sumber:-

1912-02-01: The Broome (Selangor) Rubber Plantations Ltd.

Pada 1 Februari 1912, Ladang Broome and Bangi Estates di bawah Anglo-Asiatic Rubber and Finance Trust seluas 2,025 ekar (1,032 ekar daripadanya telah ditanam getah berusia hingga 6 tahun) telah diambil alih oleh sebuah syarikat yang ditubuhkan untuk tujuan itu, iaitu Broome (Selangor) Rubber Plantations Ltd: “A Rubber Share Trust and Finance Company's baby, the Broome (Selangor) Rubber Plantations, Limited, is being floated. The directors include Mr. Keith Arbuthnot and Mr. H. S. Seldon. The authorised capital is £135,000 in £1 shares, of which 78,000 shares are being offered to the public, and 50,000 are being issued to the vendors in part-payment of the purchase price. The company is acquiring 2,025 acres in Selangor of which 1,032 acres are already planted in Hevea up to six years of age. The estimated crop for 1912 is 108,000 lbs.” (Straits Echo, 1 February 1912, Page 6: |"Latest Rubber Flotation").

Maklumat lanjut berkaitan perkara ini dapat ditemui di dalam laporan mesyuarat statutori pertama syarikat ini di London pada 30 April 1912, yang memperincikan keadaan semasa ladang-ladang yang baru diambil alih ketika itu: “The statutory meeting of the Broome (Selangor) Rubber Plantations, Limited, was held on April 30, at the registered office of the company, Mincing Lane House, 59, Eastcheap, E.C., Mr. Harold Samuel Seldon, presiding. …. this is the statutory meeting and is simply called in compliance with the Companies Acts, and at this stage of the company's history there is very little to report to you. The accounts speak for themselves. We have allotted 78,000 shares wholly for cash, and £1 per share has been called up. The amount paid up in the statutory report is £75,334 10., but since then we have received further sums. Interest and transfer fees also speak for themselves. As regards particulars of payments, we have paid £57,000 - that is £1,000 short of the cash purchase price. The reason why we have kept that £1,000 back was that when the estates came to be transferred there was a quarter of an acre which the vendor, Mr, Kelly, was under obligation to sell to someone else, and, in view of that, we kept back £1,000 in cash and 6,000 shares. There can be no valuable building on this quarter of an acre and in fact there are no valuable buildings at all as yet. Besides this we have and indemnity from the vendor against any further risk, if there was any. Costs and duties in connection with the transfer of property, Preliminary expenses, underwriting commission and general expenses were all provided for by the prospectus. The amount remitted to the estate was £500. I think there is no other item which calls for comment. We first got to business by appointing as agents on the other side Messrs. Harrisons and Crosfield. We all know them, and have confidence in them.”

CATATAN: Lokasi mesyuarat ini (Mincing Lane House, 59, Eastcheap, E.C.) kemudiannya menjadi ibu pejabat Marmite Food Extract Co sekitar tahun 1929 (Grace's Guide to British Industrial History: |"Marmite Food Extract Co").

Turut disampaikan di dalam mesyuarat ini ialah laporan pemeriksa ladang (visiting agent), Mr. Patrick Hadow: “Then Mr. Patrick Hadow, visiting agent or a great number of Sumatra companies, was appointed visiting agent. On Saturday we got his report, and I shall be able to tell you one or two things which may interest you.”:-

  • Hasil getah bulanan: 5,000-5,500 paun, dari 36,000-40,000 batang pokok meliputi 1,314 ekar tanah ladang (280 ekar telah ditebang dan baru ditanam semula, dan 300 ekar lagi menyusul): “The February and March crops, which you have probably seen in the papers, were:- February 5,500 lbs, and March 5,000 lbs. The reason why the March return was rather short is because the trees were wintering. We have now 36,000 trees being tapped, of which 4,000 have just come into the tapping round this April. The planted acreage up to date is 1,314 acres, including 280 acres which were felled but not planted when company took over the property. They have since been planted, and we have a further 300 acres to be felled and planted. Probably they are being felled now.
  • Kegiatan merumput yang memuaskan: “With regard to weeding, the visiting agent says:- “With the exception of a small portion of one of the steepest hills, where grass is grown purposely, the whole area is clean-weeded and absolutely free from all weeds. Weeding is performed by Tamil and Javaneese coolies.”
  • Ladang yang hampir tiada wabak penyakit: “He also says that with the exception of a few isolated cases of trees attacked by white ants or fungus, the whole estate may be said to be free from disease. On this point he says: “I have seldom seen an estate where so little disease was in evidence.”
  • Keseluruhan kawasan ladang telah dimanfaatkan, dan dibekalkan secukupnya: “As regards supplying, he states that the whole cultivated area is being carefully supplied, and there are no vacancies amongst either the old or the young rubber. Then, as regards water supply, he says: “The water supply for the Javanese lines is also good, and, with the exception of one set of lines, where a well is now being put in hand, the water supply is satisfactory and complete.”
  • Kesihatan para pekerja ladang adalah baik. Hospital sedang dalam pembinaan, menggantikan sebuah banglo di situ: “Health on the Estate: The health of the coolies, he reports, is excellent, and sickness is said to be almost unknown. The coolies which he saw were all in good health and well nourished. We have had to build a hospital - as a matter of fact, we have to build it by May 25, but they would have no difficulty in extending the date. At present a bungalow was being pulled down for a hospital site.”
  • Jumlah pekerja: 410 (160 Tamil, 250 Jawa), dan bakal bertambah oleh kerana lokasi serta keadaan ladang ini yang agak baik. Penambahan kediaman pekerja sedang dirancang bagi menampung pertambahan ini. Sementara itu, buat masa ini, pemprosesan hasil getah masih dijalankan di kilang pemproses di ladang-ladang bersebelahan: “They were also having to build some further coolie lines and a factory, but he did not think they would proceed with the building of the factory at present, having made arrangements with one of the neighbouring estates whereby they were under contract to manufacture. The cost will be cheap and reasonable. The labour consists of 160 Tamils and 250 Javanese. The estate is very favourably situated for labour, and Me. Kelly says he will be able to procure as many free Javanese as he requires. It is a favourite estate amongst the Javanese. He has also recruiters in India recruiting Tamils, and such a healthy estate should have no difficulty in getting a large labour force.”
  • Sebagaimana di ladang-ladang lain, generasi awal pokok-pokok getah ditanam terlalu rapat, menyebabkan hasilnya tidak optimum. Oleh itu sebahagiannya harus ditebang: “In talking of the planted area he says that part of the older rubber is probably too closely planted, and later on we may have to cut some trees out. I think that is more or less the experience of the older companies, and we shall, I think, have to cut out a few trees. I think that is pretty well recognised all round. We shall probably get as much rubber from 100 trees as from 150.”
  • Sebelum diambil alih oleh syarikat baru ini, semua hasil getah ladang ini dibawa ke benua Eropah. Setelah diambil alih, ianya bakal dibawa ke London: “I do not think there is any more information to give you at the moment. I am glad Mr. Hadow's report came in just in time for this meeting, so that you can get the latest news to date as to the estate. We have discussed the question of selling rubber forward, but we did not think it expedient to sell any until we had actually seen the rubber. The rubber now will be coming to London, whereas previously it has been going to the Continent. We have no proposition to put before you, but if there is anything you would like to ask me that I can answer I shall be very pleased to do so.”

(Sumber: The Straits Times, 29 May 1912, Page 12: |"BROOME (SELANGOR).").

CATATAN: Perihal pemeriksa / visiting agent: “A Visiting Agent was literally that; an agent of the owner who visited once or twice a year to oversee the management of all aspects of the property and advise on policy in general and agricultural practice in particular.” (Ian Gardner, 2004: |"MY EXPERIENCES IN TEA & RUBBER PLANTATION MANAGEMENT IN CEYLON 1952 - 1969", m.s.3).

1912-04-15: Permohonan Tapak Banglo

Permohonan oleh Mr. J. Kelly bagi pihak Broome (Selangor) Plantations Ltd, untuk perolehan sebidang tanah seluas 4 ekar untuk tujuan pembinaan sebuah banglo kediaman pengurus ladang. Tapak tersebut pada asalnya adalah rizab rumah kongsi P.W.D., yang tidak lagi diperlukan untuk tujuan tersebut. Sebagai gantinya, pihak Broome Estate akan menyerahkan 1 1/2 ekar tanahnya kepada pihak kerajaan, untuk dijadikan kuari. Ketika ini jumlah keluasan Broome Estate ialah kira-kira 2,000 ekar (1,400 daripadanya telah ditanam dan diusahakan). Permohonan ini kemudiannya diluluskan pada 1 Mei 1912:-

”…I have received an application No.41/12 from Mr:J.Kelly on behalf of the Broome (Selangor) Plantations Ltd:, for an area of 4 acres 2 Rds 10 poles as shown in red on attached tracing for the purpose of an Estate Manager's Bungalow.

2. The present temporary bungalow of Broome Estate is near X but that site is not suitable for permanent residential site and will moreover be required or partly required for the estate factory buildings. On papers S.R. 2169/10 the estate were granted a building site at Y but after the kill was cleared it was found too steep and too narrow at the top for a bungalow.

3. The land now applied for is a gently rising slope very suitable for a building site and in bluker. I was applied for previously several times by the estate for rubber but the application was refused locally as both the Executive Engineer,Ulu Langat, and I, thought the land might be required later for P.W.D. lines. P.W.D. lines have now been built elsewhere the Department no longer require the block. A good Government reserve of 5 1/2 acres just opposite Bangi Station has been kept - vide Portion 1264 as shown in blue on the tracing and this should be ample for any future Government needs here.

4. In exchange for the grant of this site Broome Estate offer to surrender an area of about 1 1/2 acres of land containing good latrite and which the Executive Engineer, Ulu Langat informs me he would be glad to get as a quarry.

5. The Broome (Selangor) Plantation Ltd: hold in all about 2,000 acres of agricultural land of which 1,400 is planted and in good condition.

- R(J.B.)Clayton, District Officer, ULU LANGAT.”

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 15/04/1912: |"APPLICATION BY MR. KELLY ON BEHALF OF THE BROOME, SELANGOR PLANTATIONS LIMITED FOR 4 ACRES 2 ROODS 10 POLES OF LAND IN KAJANG MUKIM").

1912-07-06: Hasil Getah

Hasil getah Ladang Broome yang direkodkan pada Mei 1912 ialah sebanyak 6,100 paun (Straits Echo, 7 June 1912, Page 8: |"May Rubber Crops") manakala pada Jun 1912 ialah sebanyak 5,411 paun (Straits Echo, 6 July 1912, Page 4: |"June Rubber Crops").

1912-09-21: Laporan Pemeriksaan Imigresen

Pemeriksaan 13/08/1912

Name of Estate. Broome. Selangor, Ulu Langat District.' Owned by “The Broome (Selangor) Rubber Plantations Ltd.” incorporated in England. Agents: Harrisons & Crossfield'

Date of visit. 13/8/12, with Dr. Reid Health Officer, Manager notified the day previously.

Date of last inspection. By S.H.O. on 21.5.12; by A. S. I on 8.5.11.

Area of Estate. 2025 acres.

Nature & area of cultivation. 1632 acres under rubber.

Management. Manager, Mr. W.R.Shelton-agar, present. 3 assistants.

Muster. Not held.

Lines. Two Tamil lines, raised about 3 feet, brick drains round them; fair. Three Javanese lines of similar type near the factory, some distance away from the Tamils.

Latrines. Trench latrines with a shelter, not always used.

Water supply. Cemented wells, those at the Tamil lines having pumps in working order, those at the Javanese lines being without pumps a new well much larger is however being sunk at the factory close by and this will be supplied with a pump.

Hospital. At present using Kajang hospital; Estate is going to build a Hospital of its own and we spent a good deal of time examining sites for it. Dresser on Estate.

Truck. Estate supplies rice at 35 cents a gantang; from August the price becomes 45 cents.

Labour. Tamils: men 230, women 15, children 5. Javanese: men 185, children 7 (and women who don't work); all free. Chinese: 50 approximately. No Tamil school in neighbourhood; nothing is being done On Estate.

Books. In July Tamils did 4627.5 days work for $2152.60 in wages. Sunday work is paid for in cash.

Sanitary Regulations: None.

Orders. None.

Offences. None disclosed.

General. No recommendations.

Sd: A. S. Haynes.“

Pemeriksaan 26/11/1912

“NOVEMBER REPORTS SELANGOR.

Name of Estate: Broome Estate at Bangi owned by Broome (Selangor) Rubber Plantations Ltd. Incorporated in England. Harrison and Crossfield agents.

Date of visit: 26.11.12. Alone without notice. General Manager not present but assistant in charge of Broome Division was present.

Date of last inspection. Health Officer 22.11.12.

Area of estate. 2009 acres.

Area and nature of cultivation. 1628 in rubber.

Management. Shelton Agar Manager. Four assistants of whom one is in charge of Broome Estate and the Javanese labour.

Muster. None held. Visited in afternoon and coolies seen in lines.

Lines. Three sets. One is old and is to be pulled down as soon as a new set of lines at present under construction is finished. Two other sets of wood with attap roofs. Raised off the ground, cooking sheds are near the lines. None of the lines are good and the ones to be pulled down are really bad. The lines themselves were clean but the surroundings littered with rubbish. New lines are being built. One set near the road almost finished. They are 120 x 30 built of wood with attap roofs and passage in centre. Raised on brick pillars and with brick drains. Rooms 12' x 10'. Other lines are said to be contemplated in the new clearings of a similar type but are not started yet. Sites have been fixed.

Latrines. Supplied to old lines only. A wooden house over a drain.

Water. Concrete wells. One has a pump which was not working when I saw it. Another has a corrugated iron cover but is was not on the well.

Hospital. At present use Kajang Government Hospital 8 miles by road but estate is at Bangi station. The estate has been ordered to build a hospital and the materials have now arrived from England. It is to be erected on the site of the present old lines…”

Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR @ ARKIB NEGARA MALAYSIA, 21/09/1912: |"BROOME ESTATE - ULU LANGAT DISTRICT. ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT OF IMMIGRANTS INSPECTION REPORT FOR 1912".

1913-08-12: Korban Perang Dunia

Mr. Frank Kenny, bekas pembantu pengurus Broome Estate 1912-1913, menyertai tentera Kanada lalu terlibat di dalam perang dunia di Eropah. Beliau kemudiannya terkorban di Perancis pada 12 Ogos 1913 (Straits Echo, 12 October 1916, Page 5: |"Outside").

1913-08-20: Penurapan Jalan

Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 20/08/1913: |"PERMISSION FOR THE MANAGER OF BROOME ESTATE TO METAL ? OF A MILE OF OLD SEPANG TRACK".

1913-11-28: Mesyuarat Tahun Pertama

Mesyuarat tahunan pertama Broome (Selangor) Rubber Plantations, Ltd. Keluasan ladang yang telah ditanam dengan getah ialah 1,387 ekar (542 ekar daripadanya ditanam pada tahun 1912). Setakat 30 Jun 1913, 326 ekar daripadaya menghasilkan sejumlah 117,189 paun getah kering, dan bakal mencapai lingkungan 120,000 paun menjelang tahun hadapannya (30 Jun 1914) 27,193 paun telah dapat dihasilkan di antara Julai-September 1913. Pemangkasan dan penjarangan pokok-pokok getah telah dapat memperbaiki proses pemulihan bekas torehan. Antara perancangan utama ialah menurunkan kos operasi sebanyak mungkin, termasuk tidak lagi mengambil alih kawasan ladang yang baru. Tenaga pekerja setakat 30 Jun 1913 ialah seramai 665 orang, dan tiada masalah kerana dikatakan ladang pilihan ramai. Ketika ini getah masih diproses di kilang West Country Estate, sementara kilangnya sendiri sedang dalam pembinaan (The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser2, 19 November 1913, Page 2: |"BROOME (SELANGOR) RUBBER"; The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 4 December 1913, Page 2: |"BROOME SELANGOR.").

1915-01-07: Laporan Penghasilan

Setakat 30 Jun 1914, jumlah terkumpul hasil getah kering Broome Estate ialah 111,078 paun, dan dianggarkan mencapai 160,000 paun menjelang 30 Jun 1915. Hasil Julai-Oktober 1914: 49,985 paun (The Straits Times, 7 January 1915, Page 12: |"Broome Rubber Plantations").

1915-10-15: Permohonan Tanah Perladangan

Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 05/10/1915: |"THE COUNTRY LANDS (CULTIVATION) ENACTMENT 8/14 APPLICATION BY THE BROOME (SELANGOR) RUBBER PLANTATION LIMITED FOR ENDORSEMENT ON GRANTS 4352, 4479, 5045, 5337, 5462 AND 5463".

CATATAN: Kemungkinan petikan laporan akhbar ini ada kaitan dengan permohonan ini, iaitu pengambil alihan ladang bersebelahan seluas 11 ekar: “You will observe that the property account is debited with 600 shares, being the cost of land purchased, which will be paid for with 600 fully paid shares when the titles have been found in order. I may mention that this land consists of about 11 acres of mature rubber adjoining our property and is now being tapped. The board some time ago considered it advisable to purchase this block, as adjacent native holdings are often a source of trouble.” (The Straits Times, 4 November 1915, Page 12: | "Broome Plantations").

1915-11-04: Musim Perang Dunia Pertama

Laporan penghasilan semasa, di ambang perang dunia pertama di Eropah: “Last autumn, just after the outbreak of war, we were compelled to sell a quantity of rubber in Singapore, as we could neither remit money out, obtain a temporary loan from the Government, nor discount drafts in the East. In November last, however, the banks again began to discount drafts against shipments, which eased the financial position. At that time we thought it prudent to sell forward enough rubber to ensure a sufficient sum of money to meet monthly requirements. … We have nearly 1,400 acres of planted rubber, the whole of which should be tappable before December 31, 1916, so we may look for big yields during the years 1916-17 and 1917-18. During the year 1916-17 our manager thinks we may expect a crop of well over 400,000 lbs. of rubber, and in the year after a crop of over 600,000 lbs.”

Turut dinyatakan lokasinya yang strategik ketika itu, iaitu bersebelahan dengan Stesen Keretapi Bangi: “The estate is favourably situated in many respects. The Bangi railway station immediately adjoins the property, and this naturally greatly facilitates the transport of rubber and supplies.”

Keadaan ladang, pekerja serta prasarananya dilaporkan baik. Terdapat beberapa bangunan banglo, kilang pemproses, kediaman pekerja, serta hospital di sekitar kawasan ladang: “With regard to the estate work in general, we are continuing to thin out on the closely-planted areas ; the health of the labour force is good, and plant, machinery and buildings are reported to be in first-class order. In conclusion, I think I can say that our financial position may now be regarded as satisfactory, and, as you are aware, we have not found it necesary to issue debentures. .. The large sum which we were advised to spend in the past on permanent buildings, such as bungalows, factory, coolie lines, hospital, etc. and also on machinery for the factory, was fully justified, and they now form valuable assets.”

( Sumber: The Straits Times, 4 November 1915, Page 12: | "Broome Plantations" ).

CATATAN: Laporan yang agak positif ini turut terpapar di dalam "Report on Cooperation in American Export Trade" terbitan U.S. Government Printing Office pada tahun 1916:-
Laporan Eksport Getah 1916
Hasil getah Broome Estate adalah antara yang tinggi.

1916-11-23: Mr Bell Kemalangan

Seorang pegawai pembantu Broome Estate, Mr. Bell, mengalami kemalangan serius di Jalan Bangi-Kajang dan dibawa ke Hospital Kajang, sebelum dihantar ke |European Hospital Kuala Lumpur: “A serious accident occured on Thursday afternoon on the Kajang-Bangi Road about the 22nd mile. Mr. Bell, an assistant of Broome Estate, was motor cycling to Kajang to attend drill when he came into collision with a motor car coming in the opposite direction. Mr. Bell, who was badly hurt, was picked up by Mr. Paul and brought into Kajang and take to the district hospital. It was there found that in addition to being badly cut about the head his leg and thigh were broken. Mr. Bell was subsequently taken to the European Hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Both the car and the motor cycle were badly damaged.” (The Straits Times, 25 November 1916, Page 8: |"Untitled").

1917-06-08: Kerosakan Pembetungan

1917-08-20: Paten Rekabentuk Mesin Pelipat

Pengumuman paten rekabentuk mesin pelipat getah krep, ciptaan Frederick Rothwell (F. R.) Holt. Nombor paten: 317.

Rekabentuk mesin ini dicipta oleh F.R. Holt ketika beliau bertugas di Ladang Broome selama 4-5 bulan sahaja, sebelum kembali ke England. Ianya tidak memerlukan tenaga yang tinggi, dan boleh juga beroperasi secara manual. Dikatakan 3 mesin yang ini, dengan kelajuan 20 pusingan seminit, dapat menggantikan 9 orang pekerja dan penjimatan lebih $1,000 setahun. (Malaya Tribune., 20 August 1917, Page 5: |"A Crepe Folder").

CATATAN: Pada tahun 1920, beliau didapati bersalah dalam suatu kes bunuh di England, dan telah dijatuhkan hukuman mati di sana. (Malaya Tribune., 15 April 1920, Page 8: |"The Sandhills Murder").

1919-02-27: Kes Mahkamah: Broome Plantations lwn R.H. Whitley

Sekitar Februari 1917, Richard Hazleton (R. H.) Whitley / Whitty mula menjalani kontrak 3 tahun 8 bulan sebagai pembantu pengurusan Broome Estate. Namun kira-kira setahun setengah selepas itu, beliau telah mendapat tawaran lebih baik daripada syarikat lain, lalu ingin membatalkan kontrak tersebut. Pihak Broome Plantations bertindak menyaman Whitley, bagi mendapatkan injunksi prohibitori atau perintah halangan dari mahkamah bagi menafikan usaha pembatalan tersebut. Pada 27 Februari 1919, kes ini telah dimenangi oleh Broome Plantations: Mr. Whitty tidak dibenarkan bekerja di mana-mana ladang lain di sekitar Selangor dan Negeri Sembilan sehingga tamat kontrak pada 31 Oktober 1920 (The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 28 February 1919, Page 5: |"THE RADIUS CLAUSE.").

Menurut kajian kes, keputusan mahkamah dibuat berdasarkan hak syarikat yang telah dipersetujui di dalam kontrak: “For remedies for breach of contract, by way of injunction, there are two types of injunction: prohibitory and mandatory (see Fig. 5). A prohibitory injunction, as its name suggests, is an order by the court that restrains a party from doing certain things that are contradictory to Shari'ah principles, or contradictory to the terms of a contract (Billah 2003). For instance, in the case of Broome (Selangor) Rubber Plantations p. R. H. Whitley (1919) (Sinnadurai 1987), the defendant entered into an agreement to serve the plaintiff for a period of three years and eight months. However, about one and a half years after the commencement of the contract, the defendant chose to terminate the contract. The plaintiff then sued for an injunction. It was held that, under Section 57 of the Specific Relief Act, the plaintiff were entitled to an injunction restraining the defendant from entering into employment as a manager or assistant on any plantation in the states of Selangor and Negeri Sembilan other than on the estate of the plaintiff until the expiry of their contract.” (Mohd Ma'Sum Billah, 2019: "Islamic Financial Products: Principles, Instruments and Structures", m.s. 122).

Kini, kes ini telah menjadi antara contoh popular injunksi prohibitori di dalam negara ini. Contohnya, suatu rumusan kes ini pernah disiarkan di akhbar The Star, dalam membincangkan isu berhenti kerja: “In Broom(e) (Selangor) Rubber Plantations vs R.H. Whitley, the defendant, Whitley, entered into an agreement to serve the plaintiffs as an assistant on their rubber estate for a period of three years and eight months. Whitley unilaterally terminated the employment saying that he had been offered a much better position. The plaintiff sought an injunction which was granted and it was said: “The plaintiffs have performed the contract so far as it is binding on them. The defendant threatens to break his affirmative agreement with them. I find that there is on the part of the defendant an implied negative agreement, viz not to enter the service of any other employer until the expiration of his period of service with the plaintiffs until the end of the contract period.” (Bhag Singh @ The Star, 25 Aug 2009: |"Articles of Law: Quitting your job").

CATATAN: Antara penghujahan pihak Broome Estate di dalam kes ini adalah mereka terpaksa membayar $200 sebulan bagi pegawai pengganti sekiranya Mr. Whitty bertindak melanggar kontrak pekerjaannya. Di dalam surat pembaca di akhbar ketika itu, timbul reaksi terhadap penghujahan ini. Penulis mendakwa selama ini Broome Estate gagal membayar kadar gaji minima $200 sebulan kepada pegawai pembantu yang baru bertugas: ”..In your issue of the 28th ult., you report Mr.Jarvis, of Messrs. Harrisons and Crosfield, as stating in his evidence in the suit of the Broome (selangor) Rubber Plantations, Ltd. (by their agents, Harrisons and Crosfield, Ltd.) v. Whitty, that in the event of their having 'to get another man from home (to succeed Mr. Whitty) they would have to pay him the usual beginnew's salary of $200 per month.' Any ordinary person reading Mr. Jarvis's statement would conclude that it is the practise of the agents of the plaintiff company to pay to all men engaged by them at home as assistants for estates in their agency a salary of $200 per mensem. The writer knows that this is not the fact and that the firm of agents in question are bringing our assistants from home at a salary of $175 per mensem for the first year, and this in spite of the unanimous resolution passed by the P.A.M. that “the minimum living wage for an assistant out from home at the present time is $200 per mensem.” Oh for an Estate Staff Protection Society! - Yours, etc, Stanley P. Courtenay, F.M.S., March 2, 1919.” (The Straits Times, 5 March 1919, Page 10: |"Estate Assistants' Pay").

1919-11-12: Perkahwinan Cecil K. Paul

Majlis perkahwinan pegawai Broome Estate, Cecil K. Paul, dengan pasangan beliau Jean F. Campbell, diadakan di Brisbane, Australia: “PAUL-RIDGWAY. - On the 12th November, at St. Augustine's Church, Hamilton, Brisbane, by the Rev. J. B. Armstrong, Cecil K. Paul, of Broome Estate, Bangi, Selangor, F.M.S., youngest son of W. F. B. Paul, Esq., late Colonial Service, and Mrs. Paul, Sussex, England, to Jean F. Campbell, only daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Julian Campbell Ridgway, of “Bendels,” Hamilton, Brisbane.” (The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Sat 22 Nov 1919, Page 13: |"Family Notices").

1920-12-20: Mesyuarat Tahunan ke-8

Mesyuarat tahunan ke-8 telah dipengerusikan oleh Mr Joseph Kelly di London: “The eight annual general meeting of the Broome (Selangor) Rubber Plantations, Limited, was held on December 20 at the company's offices, 4, Buckingham Gate, S.W., Mr Joseph Kelly (chariman and managing director) presiding.” (The Straits Times, 25 January 1921, Page 12: |"BROOME PLANTATIONS.").

1921-05-21: Lesen Bekalan Air

Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 21/05/1921: |"WATER SUPPLY TO BROOME RUBBER ESTATE FACTORY - LICENCE FOR").

1924-11-17: Mesyuarat Tahunan ke-12

Mesyuarat tahunan ke-12 dipengerusikan oleh Mr. Joseph Kelly pada 17 November 1924: “The twelfth annual general meeting of Broome (Selangor) Rubber Plantations, Ltd. was held on November 17 at the company's offices, 4 Buckingham-gate, S.W. Mr. Joseph Kelly (chairman and managing director) presided, and, in moving the adoption of the report and accounts, said the net proceeds of the sales of rubber totalled £17,217.” (The Straits Times, 18 December 1924, Page 10: |BROOME SELANGOR RUBBER).

1926-09-17: F.J. Pratt @ Ladang Broome

Kelahiran anak lelaki pasangan Mr. dan Mrs. F.J. Pratt dari Ladang Broome Bangi, di |European Hospital, KL (The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 17 September 1926, Page 8: "DOMESTIC OCCURRENCES. BIRTHS").

LATAR PERISTIWA: Frederic James (F.J.) Pratt.

Peta Ladang Broome, 1927

Ladang Broome, 1920-anLadang Broome, kini
Kiri: Ladang Broome, 1920-an (Survey Department, Singapore, 1927 @ National Archives of Singapore: |"Parts of Seremban and Jelebu Districts with portions of Ulu Langat and Kuala Langat Districts (Selangor), Kajang, Negri Sembilan").
Kanan: Ladang Broome, kini. Sebahagiannya kini Bandar Seri Putra dan Southville City.

1933-07-03: Broome Rubber Plantations Ld.

Broome (Selangor) Rubber Plantations Ld. Regd. 1912. Vol. liq. (creditors') 3 July 1933
Syarikat Broome (Selangor) Rubber Plantations Ld. dibubarkan, dan dibina semula sebagai Broome Rubber Plantations Ld.: “Broome (Selangor) Rubber Plantations Ld. Regd. 1912. Vol. liq. (creditors') 3 July 1933. Reconstructed as Broome Rubber Plantations Ld., in which company shareholders were entitled to 2 shares of 2s.(credited as fully-paid) for each share of &1 held. Final meeting return regd. 30 June 1934.” (Springer, 1 Mar 1990: "Register of Defunct Companies", m.s.85).

1939-08-03: Peranan Pengurus Ladang Broome

Pengurus Ladang Broome, Mr. F.J. Pratt, berperanan dalam beberapa inisiatif berikut:-

1939-08-03: Surat pembaca dari S. Arumugam (Estet Bangi) adalah kemungkinan antara perbincangan awal mengenai kumpulan wang simpanan pekerja estet, hampir sedasawarsa sebelum penubuhan The Malaysian Estates Staff Provident Fund pada tahun 1947. Antara penyokongnya ialah Mr. F.J. Pratt, pengurus Broome Estate di Bangi. (The Straits Times, 3 August 1939, Page 15: "SYMPATHETIC PLANTERS").

1940-01-15: Laporan mesyuarat I.S.P. (Incorporated Society of Planters) antara lain menekankan peri penting pendidikan teknikal bagi bakal petugas operasi ladang, sebagai persediaan bagi mereka mengambil alih peranan pihak pengurusan kelak. Ini termasuk pendidikan dan peperiksaan bahasa pertuturan/komunikasi para pekerja ladang, iaitu Bahasa Tamil, Telugu dan Melayu. Sebelum musim peperangan, peperiksaan ini dikelola oleh pihak kerajaan. Kini terpaksa diambil alih oleh persatuan. Peperiksaan Bahasa Tamil yang pertama telah dikelola oleh pengurus Broome Estate di Bangi, Mr. F.J. Pratt. (Straits Times, 15 January 1940, Page 12: "TECHNICAL EDUCATION NOW OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE").

CATATAN: Mr. F.J. Pratt kemudiannya dilantik sebagai ahli Majlis Negeri Selangor pada 15 Jun 1940.

1953: Pembinaan SRJK(T) Ladang Broome

Sekolah ini mula dibina pada tahun 1953: “Sekolah ini asalnya dibina pada tahun 1953 di sebuah estet yang bernama Ladang Broome. Prasarana Sekolah ini telah dipertingkatkan secara berperingkat. Sekolah ini mempunyai 6 bilik darjah dan juga beberapa bilik lain.”
(Sumber: Dr S Subramaniam, 2017: |"Majlis Perasmian Bangunan Baru & Bilik Komputer SJK(T) Bangi").
Menurut sumber lain, bangunan sekolah yang kekal sehingga kini mula beroperasi pada tahun 1962, menggantikan lokasi asalnya di Ladang Bukit Tunggu(l): “Headmistress Mary Paripuranam said the school's history dates back beyond 1962, when it was located at the Bukit Tunggul Estate. The partially aided school moved to Bangi (the site of Broome Estate) in 1962.” (Esther Chandran, @ The Star, 2007: |"Bridge set to offer an easy way out for folks").

Menteri Muda Pelajaran, En. Lee Siok Yew merasmikan pembukaan Sekolah Rendah Jenis Kebangsaan (Tamil) Ladang Broome, Bangi: pada 24/07/1968: “Menteri Muda Pelajaran, Enche Lee Siok Yew telah merasmikan pembukaan Sekolah Rendah Jenis Kebangsaan (Tamil) Ladang Broome, Bangi, berharga $14,000 hari ini.” (Berita Harian, 24 July 1968, Page 10: "Sekolah baru").

SJK(T) Bangi kini
SRJK(T) Ladang Broome kini dikenali sebagai SJK(T) Bangi.

LATAR PERISTIWA: 1968-07-24: Pembukaan SRJK(T) Ladang Broome.

1953-04-18: Polis di Ladang Broome

Surat pembaca dari Seremban, mengucapkan terima kasih kepada pegawai polis di Ladang Broome yang telah membantu menarik lori beliau dari dalam gaung di Bangi (The Straits Times, 18 April 1953, Page 9: "Points from letters").

1970-an: Kampung Aman

“Kampung Baru Cina ini terletak betul-betul belakang Pekan Bangi yang dahulunya kebun Kelapa milik seorang cina bernama Law Lin, tempat ini dahulu lebih dikenali sebagai 'Bangi Village' ia wujud apabila Inggeris mengadakan kawasan Kg.Baru semasa Darurat dalam tahun 50an. Penduduk Cina disini berasal daripada kawasan bersebelahan Estet Bangi dan sebahagian lagi berasal dari Kacau, Broga dan Mantin.Pada tahun 90an berlaku kebakaran di sebahagian rumah panjang ini dan kebanyakan mereka membina kembali rumah mereka di kawasan bukit belakang Kedai Mara,tanah yang telah mereka beli daripada Broome Estate dalam tahun 70an.” (Faizal Hj Zainal, September 14, 2008: |"Sejarah Bangi").

Kampung Aman, Bangi
Kawasan Kampung Aman, Bangi, kini (Di dalam bulatan merah - Google Maps). Di tengah-tengahnya ialah SJK(C) Yoke Min. SJK(C) Yoke Min Bangi
SJK(C) Yoke Min Bangi (Dong Zong, March 06, 2020: |"SJK(C) Yoke Min Bangi").

1978-05-01: Perolehan Ladang Sungai Merab

Malakoff Berhad bakal memperolehi Ladang Sungai Marap (Sungai Merab) seluas 255 hektar (250 daripadanya telah dipenuhi pokok getah matang). Ladang ini adalah sebahagian daripada Ladang Broome. (BUSINESS TIMES, 1 May 1978, Page 10: "Malakoff to buy Sungei Marap Estate").

Ladang Sungai Marap (Sungai Merab) dan Broome
Ladang Sungai Marap (Sungai Merab) dan Ladang Broome.

LATAR PERISTIWA: Getah di Malaya.

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broome_estate.txt · Last modified: 2021/11/22 15:14 by sazli