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Jalan Ayer Itam

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1891-1892: Pembukaan Ayer Itam

Antara faktor pembukaan tanah di kawasan pedalaman seperti Ayer Itam ini adalah kesan spekulasi meluas berkenaan tanaman kopi. Sekitar tahun ini, ladang kopi meliputi 2,800 hektar tanah di Selangor: “Under the Perak Land Code of 1879, State Land was divided into the categories only of Waste Land, Malay Reservation, Building Land and Mining Reserves. Waste Land included forest land, alienable for agriculture. Similar leases from Waste Land served the ‘coffee craze’, in Selangor, led by T.H. Hill, a planter from Ceylon. Rathborne, Lim Swee King and members of the Malay nobility joined the speculation. In the 1890s coffee covered about 2,800 ha in Selangor.” (Jeyamalar Kathirithamby-Wells, 2005: |NATURE AND NATION: Forests and Development in Peninsular Malaysia" (PDF), m.s. 118).

1891-10-16: Pembukaan Tanah

Dato Dagang Kuala Lumpur, Haji Mohamed Tahir melaporkan, beberapa orang peneroka tanah di Ayer Itam memerlukan masa yang lebih panjang untuk menerangkan kawasan hutan di situ, dan memohon penundaan persempadanan dan percukaian di situ. Namun dalam masa yang sama, sebahagian peneroka memerlukan jaminan akan hak pendudukan tanah mereka setelah selesai nanti. Pihak pentadbiran British memutuskan untuk mengeluarkan lesen pendudukan sementara selama 6 bulan bagi para peneroka tersebut:-


“Collector of Land Revenue, Haji Mohamed Tahir tells me these men have not yet finished clearing all the land, in view of this and their application, I think it would be well to leave them until next year.
2. Everything else in his mukim (Pataling) is pretty well settled, I would therefore ask the Resident consent to my handing this? once to you as soon I have got everything into order leaving the Ayer Itam people to be dealt with by you next year.
20-10-91. Sigd J.M.
….
Collector of Land Revenue, Yes. There are a good many applicants for new lands in various parts of the District, who are willing to pay for the land but ask for time to clear it first.
2. I should like to obtain the Residents permission to allow them to go on the land, merely keeping a list of their names and localities and giving them to understand that they have no title, or right until the land has been properly demarcated, & assessed by the Collector of Land Revenue. 3. This would not retard Settlement in any way and of course as they have not at present “existing holdings” they hardly come within my scope.
At present Malays are somewhat afraid of going on to Govt land without some sort of “surat”.
This is a good thing but at the same time may retard settlement.
4. If it is considered necessary to give some sort of title. Temporary License forms might be used. Issued free of all charges and containing merely the names of applicants. These should be deposited with the Penghulu, who during the course of the next year should present them to the Land Office to be exchanged for Extracts from the Register.
22.10.91. Sigd JW.

Settlement Officer,
How would it do to issue Extract and defer Collection.
27.10.91. ?L.P.E.

Collector of Land Revenue, This would not be any gain to the Land Office because demarcation must precede issue of Extracts and what I want to avoid is having to demarcate jungle, it is of course so much more expensive.
2. Then again the Extract and the Register bear the annual rent written on the face this would I think lead to confusion.
3. The plan I suggest would be very simple and be an economical way getting the land demarcated.
4. I should like the question settled as soon as possible.
28.10.91. Sigd. J.W.

Settlement Officer,
See Draft you had better for the period for which free Licenses are to be granted.
4-11-91. ?L.PE.

Collector of Land Revenue, Thank you, I think six months is sufficient time to allow and have altered it accordingly as your draft.
4-11-91. ?JW.”

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 16/10/1891: |"FORWARDS A COPY OF A PETITION FROM THE RECENT SETTLERS OF AYER ITAM WHO ASK THAT THEY MAY NOT BE IMMEDIATELY CALLED ON TO INCUR THE EXPENSE OF DEMARCATION OF THEIR LAND").

1892-05-03: Pendudukan Warga

Pada 3 Mei 1892, pegawai daerah Kuala Langat telah mengenalpasti beberapa mukim di kawasan pedalaman yang perlu dibuka untuk pendudukan tetap, bagi menjana kegiatan ekonomi di sana. Antaranya adalah mukim Ayer Itam:-

“I have the honour under Sec. 77th of notification no.65 of 1892 to submit for the consideration of the Resident the following rates of assessment on the mukims of Tanjong Rhu, Nibong Ampas, Ayer Itam, Kluang, and Subang Ilang. 2. At present none of these mukims have any settled population whatever. I therefore recommend that all land be granted at an assessment of 40 cents per acre for the present.”

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 03/05/1892: |"SUBMITS FOR THE RESIDENT'S CONSIDERATION THE FOLLOWING RATES OF ASSESMENT FOR WASTE LANDS IN THE MUKIMS OF TANJONG RHU, NIBONG AUGUS, AYER ITAM, KLUANG & SUBANG ILANG").

CATATAN: Pada mulanya pihak British memberikan pengecualian cukai bagi tiga tahun pertama pendudukan, bagi menggalakkan penghijrahan warga agar mereka dapat mengerjakan tanah tersebut. Namun tidak semena-mena hal ini menyebabkan mereka duduk berpindah randah, agar tidak perlu membayar cukai tersebut. Ini menyebabkan sesetengah pentadbir memansuhkan pengecualian ini, malah mengenakan syarat yang ketat untuk mendudukinya: “In the late nineteenth century the Malay Peninsula was sparsely populated, and large tracts of land were uncultivated. One objective of the British administration was to open potentially productive areas for settlement by estate interests where investment could be attracted and otherwise by peasant cultivators or immigrants to the peninsula from Sumatra and elsewhere in the region. Toward this end, land was made available to peasant farmers free of any payment to the government during the first three years of occupancy, and in some instances cash advances were given as well. … The inducements offered by the government attracted settlers, but there were repeated complaints from officials about the instability of Malay peasant settlements. The District Officer of Kuala Selangor wrote in 1894 that he was taking steps to discourage “nomadic” cultivation “where the people raise merely one crop of padi and then abandon the land. … In Perak, for example, the rent-free period was eliminated and more rigorous settlement procedures were introduced. Under the new rules, only “natives of the mukim in which they apply or of a neighbouring mukim” who “have good reasons, such as increasing families and so forth”, or else “Bonafide immigrants of Malay race” were to be allowed to acquire land. In the case of immigrants, “measures should be taken to discover whether they really come from outside the Federated Malay States and mean to stay”, while “Federated Malay States Malays are not to be encouraged to wander up and down the Federation, planting impermanent products.” (Paul H. Kratoska, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol. 16, No. 1 (Mar., 1985), pp. 16-45: |"The Peripatetic Peasant and Land Tenure in British Malaya").

1896-1905: Jalan Kajang - Ayer Itam

Setelah pembukaan tanah dibuat, jalan yang menghubungkan Kajang dengan Ayer Itam (sekitar Kampung Pulau Meranti - Bukit Puchong kini) mula dirancang. Ianya dibina secara berperingkat mulai 1896, dan siap sekitar 1905.

1896-01-29: Pembukaan Tender Ukur Jalan

Kerja ukur bagi menghubungkan Ayer Itam (2 batu ke selatannya) dengan Jalan Sungai Chiow/Cheow/Chuau/Chua, Kajang, sejauh :-

”… the undersigned beg to tender for the survey of proposed road from a point 2 miles south of Ayer Itam point in the Sungei Chiow Road … he will take up the survey @ $175 per mile … The Distance is approximately 8 miles and would amount to $1400.”

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 29/01/1896: |"AYER ITAM - KAJANG ROAD - NOTICE INVITING TENDERS FOR THE SURVEY OF - FORWARDS").

Peta Jalan: 1896

Lakaran cadangan Jalan Sg Chuau (Kajang) - Ayer Itam, 1896
Lakaran cadangan Jalan Sg Chuau (Kajang) - Ayer Itam, 1896 (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 14/04/1896: |"KAJANG - REKO BRIDLE ROAD-AS TO COST OF CONVERTING IT INTO A CARTROAD -").

1896-08-17: Pembinaan Jalan

Pembinaan jalan bermula sekitar Ogos 1896. Peringkat awal berjarak 5 batu mulai Sungai Chuah menuju Ayer Itam, dibina oleh kontraktor berpengalaman S.P. Chelliah (pernah bertugas di bawah seliaan Messrs. Howarth Erskine), menggantikan Goh Eng Leong dari Kajang.

“Klang-Kajang Road 5 miles. Recommends contract with S.P. Chelliah instead of Goh Eng Leong.
….
Referring to 3964/96 I have the honour to report that Goh Eng Leong of Kajang after signing a contract for the construction of 5 miles of road from Sungei Cheow Road to Klang Kuala Langat failed to produce the necessary security. I have consequently been unable to complete the contract with my signature.
2. I have now to recommend that the contract be given to No. 24 Chelliah for the same price as Goh Eng Leong tendered namely $14,132 as he is agreeable to take up the work at this figure and to give $1000 in cash security and $1000 in deeds or $1500 in cash. He has done a good deal of work in Selangor, the principal contract being the Earthwork of the Impounding Reservoir dam under the contractors Messrs. Howarth Erskine.”

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 17/08/1896: |"SUNGEI CHEOW - AYER ITAM ROAD:- REPORTS FAILURE OF APPROVED TENDERER TO FIND SECURITY & RECOMMENDS CHELLIAH INSTEAD AT SAME FIGURE").

Di peringkat awal, pembinaan jalan berlangsung dengan agak baik, sehingga jurutera negeri H.F.Bellamy memohon pengurangan kadar tahanan bayaran daripada 25% kepada 10% bagi meringankan beban pihak kontraktor: “Referring to your No.4362/96, in which a contract No.325/96 of 19th August 1896 with S.P. Chelliah was authorised for the construction of the first five miles of the Road from Sungei Cheow Road towards Ayer Hitam, I have the honour to request the authority of Government to reduce the retention from 25% to 10%. The amount of the retention at present is too heavy and has a tendency to handicap the contractor who is reported to be doing good work and progressing well.” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 09/10/1896: |"SUNGEI CHEOW - AYER ITAM ROAD. ASKS AUTHORITY TO REDUCE THE RETENTION FROM 25% TO 10% ON CONTRACT WITH S.P. CHELLEDIH").

Beberapa bulan kemudian, proses pembinaan ini mula mengalami kelewatan. Cuaca hujan lebat menyebabkan henti tugas selama beberapa hari akibat tanah berpaya di kawasan tersebut yang seringkali digenangi air. Selain itu, terdapat sebilangan pekerja yang menghidap sakit demam dan disenteri. Kontrak projek dilanjutkan sehingga 2 bulan selepas tarikh tamat kontrak (31 Disember 1896):-

“I beg most respectfully to lay before your Honor's gracious consideration, that I have got on the 1st Section of Ayer Itam Road about 400 coolies, sawyers and jungle-cutters. As we have rain almost every day for the last 2 months and as one day's heavy rain makes the coolies not to work for 2 or 3 days on as of the low, slippery and swampy nature of the soil, the work does not progress as it ought to be in considering the number of men. Besides this three is fever and dysentry among the coolies, which also form another great hinderance to the rapid progress of the said work. The above fact can be ascertained from the Dist. Engineer, HI ? and overseer in charge. Under these circumstances I most humbly beg that your Honor may be graciously pleased to grant me two(2) months' grace of extension from the 31st December 96. Hoping to be favoured with my ardent request and humbly begging to be excused for the great trouble… - S.P. Chelliah”

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 26/11/1896: |"SUNGEI CHEOW - AYER ITAM ROAD - RECOMMENDS EXTENSION OF TIME (TWO MONTHS) ON CONTRACT FOR;").

Namun menurut laporan jurutera negeri Selangor, H.F. Bellamy, pada tarikh yang sama, beliau terpaksa mengambil alih sebahagian tugasan pembinaan. Kadar pembayaran pekerja terpaksa dinaikkan daripada 30 sen kepada 35 sen sehari, akibat kesukaran mencari pekerja yang sanggup bekerja di lokasi yang terpencil itu: “I have the honour to recommend that the daily wage of coolies departmentally employed in lockspitting the trace of the 2nd section of the Ayer Hitam Road be 35 cents per diem, the sanctioned rates being only 30 cts per diem. 2. Owing to the inaccessible nature of this section of road which commences 10 miles from Kajang coolies cannot be procured at the sanctioned rates. The country is all virgin forest and there is no approach from the base of supplies at Kajang, but over the road now in all conditions of construction. - H.F. Bellamy, State Engineer” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 26/11/1896: |"RECOMMENDS THAT THE DAILY WAGE OF COOLIES EMPLOYED IN LOCKSPITTING THE TRACE OF THE 2ND SECTION OF THE AYER ITAM ROAD BE 35 CENTS PER DIEN").

Akhirnya, kira-kira setahun selepas permulaan projek iaitu pada 17 Ogos 1897, pihak jurutera negeri melaporkan mereka terpaksa mengambil alih keseluruhan pengurusan pembinaan daripada S.P. Chelliah, oleh kerana beliau tidak dapat meneruskannya lagi: “Referring to your 6109/96 in which under date of 4th March, 1897 breach of contract No: 325/96 with S.P. Chelliah for the construction of five miles of road from Sungei Cheow Road towards Ayer Hitam in the Ulu Langat District was reported and in which an extension with the fine in abeyance was granted, I have the honour to report now that it is necessary to take action in terms of clause 6 of the contract (attached) and to give the contractor seven days notice and to carry out the work by other means; since the end of May the contractor has done little or no work under his contract, such work done has been undertaken by the District Engineer with the contractor's concurrence the District Engineer undertaking to make payments directly to the men whom the contractor originally employed on the road, and the progress has been good but as the contractor himself seldom or ever visits the work and takes no personal interest whatever in it, and as he is in financial difficulties owing to his own extravagance, and to his having borrowed money to carry on his work.” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 17/08/1897: |"CONSTRUCTION OF ROAD FROM SUNGEI CHEOW ROAD TOWARDS AYER ITAM - ULU LANGAT RECOMMENDS THAT THE WORK HE COMPLETED DEPARMENTLY, AS THE CONTRACTOR IS UNABLE TO COMPLETE THE CONTRACT").

LATAR PERISTIWA: H.F. Bellamy.

1898-12-30: Penurapan Jalan

Proses tender penurapan jalan:-


(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 30/12/1898: |"METALLING SUNGEI CHAU-AYER ITAM ROAD - (3 MILES)").

1900-01-03: Gravelling Jalan

Proses tender perkerasan badan jalan (gravelling):-

“I have the honour to request that the attached notice inviting tenders for gravelling 40 lines of the Ayer Hitam Road and for the supply of upkeep metal for the same road may be inserted in the next issue of the Government Gazette, and that the usual slips may be sent to me as soon as possible for distribution. - State Engineer”

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 03/01/1900: |"GRAVELLING 40 LINES OF AYER ITAM ROAD NOTICE INVITING TENDERS FOR:").

1901-02-14: Kelewatan Penurapan Jalan

Salah satu projek penurapan jalan mengalami kelewatan selama lebih 2 bulan, melibatkan pemanjangan tempoh kontrak sebanyak 2 kali. Sebagaimana sebelum ini, puncanya adalah kerana cuaca hujan lebat serta serangan penyakit, akibat lokasinya yang terpencil. Hal ini juga turut menyukarkan pencarian tenaga pekerja. Setelah rayuan dibuat, kontraktor projek ini, M. Chinniah, dikenakan denda sebanyak $24, 1/10 daripada jumlah denda yang asal ($240):-

“With reference to Item 27, Annual Estimate 1901, page 41 “Metalling of Ayer Hitam Road (to complete 1st Section 2 miles $6000” and to 7025/1900 in which a contract No.22 of 14th February 1901 was authorised with M. Chinniah for this work, I have the honour to report that the work is reported to have been satisfactorily completed on 5th March 1902 that is seventy days in excess of extended contract time and for which the contractor is liable to a fine of $420.
2. For reasons given in the breach reports dated 16th November 1901 and 6th January 1902, because the work is situated in a very unhealthy locality far from the haunts of men, it is very difficult to induce Tamil coolies to reside there when there is so much demand for their services elsewhere. I recommend leniency and that no find be imposed, and I seek authority to make final payment in full. - H.F.Bellamy, State Engineer, Selangor.
Let him be fined $42 , 1/10 of the fine he is liable to. (17/3)”

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 14/02/1901: |"METALLING 2 MILES AYER ITAM ROAD TENDERS FOR :-").

1902-10-17: Lombong Sungai Ramal

Permohonan pajakan sebidang tanah yang agak besar (seluas 500 ekar) di suatu selekoh di Batu 13, Jalan Ayer Itam, untuk perlombongan bijih timah oleh Loke Keng Woon. Menurut Pegawai Daerah Ulu Langat, walaupun tiada rekod kegiatan perlombongan beliau di Selangor, beliau berpengalaman melombong di Negeri Sembilan dan Broga, dengan hasil jualan kepada |Straits Trading Company untuk bulan sebelumnya sejumlah $40,000. Permohonan telah diluluskan pada 14 November 1902.

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 17/10/1902: |"PROSPECTING LICENSE APPLICATION, 13TH MILE, AYER ITAM ROAD, LOKE KENG WOON").


Berdasarkan arah selekoh Jalan Ayer Itam di dalam lakaran di atas, kemungkinan lokasi lombong ini ialah berhampiran Kajang, sekitar Kampung Sungai Ramal Luar kini, di dalam petak merah di atas (Kiri: Kawasan lombong berdasarkan peta negeri Selangor, tahun 1900-an (Edinburgh Geographical Institute, 1904 @ Yale University Library - Digital Collections: |"Selangor, Federated Malay States, 1904 / John Bartholomew & Co ; W.T. Wood, chief draftman". Kanan: Kawasan lombong kini (Mapcarta)).

Sekitar waktu yang sama, seorang lagi individu bernama Hoo Ah Chong telah memohon pajakan tanah berdekatan (Batu 14 3/4 Jalan Ayer Itam) seluas 100 ekar, untuk tujuan yang sama. Namun oleh kerana tiada rekod pengalaman, beliau diberi kelulusan untuk tanah seluas 25 ekar sahaja, sebagaimana had yang boleh diluluskan di peringkat Pegawai Daerah (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 20/10/1902: |"PROSPECTING LICENCE APPLICATION, 14? MILE AYER ITAM ROAD. HOO AH CHONG").

Peta Jalan: 1904

Peta Jalan Sungai Chuau (Kajang) - Ayer Itam, berdasarkan peta negeri Selangor, tahun 1900-anLakaran kasar jalan berturap yang sama, kini
Kiri: Peta Jalan Kajang - Ayer Itam, berdasarkan peta negeri Selangor, tahun 1900-an (Edinburgh Geographical Institute, 1904 @ Yale University Library - Digital Collections: |"Selangor, Federated Malay States, 1904 / John Bartholomew & Co ; W.T. Wood, chief draftman"). Ketika ini bahagian jalan yang berturap adalah dari Kajang hingga berdekatan Sungai Chuau/Chua/Chiow/Cheow (ditandakan ungu).
Kanan: Lakaran kasar jalan berturap yang sama, kini (Mapcarta): Dari Kajang hingga kawasan IOI Resort City, Putrajaya (ditandakan ungu).

1904-02-02: Siri Penurapan Terakhir

Antara siri tender penurapan terakhir yang dibuka pada 2 Februari 1904. Kontraktor R. Kandappoo dipilih untuk menyiapkannya. Oleh kerana lokasi jalan yang terpencil, kontrak beliau adalah “ikut kerja”, iaitu upahnya dibayar bagi setiap unit penurapan yang dibuat: “With reference to S.R. 6675/1903, I have the honour to recommend that Kandappoo's tender for metalling 2 miles Ayer Itam Road be accepted in the form of a piece work contract. 2. Nos. 1 and 2 are above the provision, and No: 3 has not the means to carry out a contract of this nature. 3. Piece work contracts are as a rule objectionable, but as this part of Ulu Langat is remote and unhealthy that form of contract may be adopted.” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 02/02/1904: |"METALLING OF 2 MILES AYER ITAM ROAD").

Tender bahagian terakhir iaitu sehingga ke sempadan Petaling/Kuala Lumpur, sejauh 2 3/4 batu, dibuka pada 10 Disember 1904. Ianya diluluskan pada 20 Januari 1905. Kontraktor R. Kandappoo turut dipilih oleh kerana beliau tinggal di kawasan tersebut. Anggaran siap: 31 Disember 1905:-

{{:arkibgambar:19570119856d02-08.png?200|}}

“I the undersigned beg to tender for the execution of completion of metalling Ayer Itam Road from the 10th mile up to the K.L. Boundary at the rate of(5) five cubes per line. … for the Sum of Dollars: Eight thousand only ($8000-00) and undertake to complete the work within a period of 31-12-05 …. R. Kandappoo, Contractor, Kajang. … I recommend that Kandappoo's ? ? tender be accepted, he lives at the spot, and has more means available for the execution of the works than No.1 - S.E. (State Engineer), 18/1/05”

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 10/12/1904: |"COMPLETION OF METALLING AYER ITAM ROAD - TENDERS FOR :-").

Serentak dengan itu, penurapan semula dijalankan dari simpang Jalan Sungai Chua sepanjang 2 batu: “Tenders will be received at the Office of the Secretary to Resident, Kuala Lumpur up to noon of the 9th January, 1905 for the Remetalling of Ayer Itam Road from Junction with Sungai Chua Road to 2nd mile (2 miles).” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 10/12/1904: |"REMETALLING AYER ITAM ROAD - TENDERS FOR :-").

1905-08-02: Hutan Simpan Ayer Itam

Pada 8 Februari 1905, Office of Conservator of Forests F.M.S. & S.S., di bawah seliaan pegawai perhutanan Arthur B. (A.B.) Stephens, memohon sebidang tanah di antara Ayer Itam dan Sungei Besi untuk tujuan pewartaan sebagai hutan simpan. Ianya diwartakan lebih setahun kemudian (sekitar Disember 1906).

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 02/08/1905: |"PORPOSED FOREST RESERVE IN AYER ITAM AND SUNGEI BESI MUKIMS, ULU LANGAT DISTRICT - RE :-").

LATAR PERISTIWA: Hutan Simpan Ayer Itam.

1906-01-08: Rumah Kongsi di Batu 8

Tender pembinaan rumah kongsi di Batu 8:-

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 08/01/1906: |"COOLIES LINES - AYER ITAM").

1906-03-30: Getah di West Country Estate

Sekitar Mac 1906, akhbar Malay Mail meramalkan bahawa ladang getah di West Country Estate bakal meliputi 5,000 ekar, sehingga ke Jalan Ayer Hitam: “The Malay Mail believes that within two years from now, there will probably be 5,000 acres planted up with rubber in the district stretching from West Country, Kajang, to the Ayer Hitam road.' (Eastern Daily Mail and Straits Morning Advertiser, 30 March 1906, Page 3: |"Untitled").

LATAR PERISTIWA: West Country Estate.

1906-08-13: Ladang Bukit Hitam

Tanah cadangan perladangan sedia ada di Ayer Itam seluas 680 ekar, ingin diperluaskan 350 ekar lagi, oleh pemiliknya Mr. Parkinson dan Mr. F. Crosbie Roles dari Ceylon. Lokasinya:-

  • Sebelah timur bersempadan dengan cadangan Hutan Simpan Ayer Itam
  • Sebelah selatan dan barat bersempadan dengan Jalan Ayer Hitam
  • Sebelah utara bersempadan dengan daerah Petaling

Permohonan diluluskan pada 26/10/1906.

“I have the honour to report that I have received an application from Mr.Parkinson on behalf of Mr.F.Crosbie Roles of Ceylon, for 350 (approximately) acres on the district boundary Ayer Hitam road.
2. Reference to S.R. 2368/06 will show that the same applicant has been already given 680 (approximately) acres in the same locality.
3. Owing to this part of the district having no surveyed points for guidance, Mr.Parkinson, with the intention of applying for all the land bounded on East by the recently surveyed Forest Reserve boundary, on the South & West by the Ayer Hitam road & on the North by the district boundary, applied for 680 acres, as he computed the available area.
4. It now appears that the area or the available land between these boundaries slightly exceeds 1000 acres. Mr. Parkinson now asks for the remaining 350 acres (approx.)
4. I recommend that the application be approved on the usual terms for 1st Class land; that the whole area be surveyed together, and that $3/- premium be charged as there is extensive road frontage to the former application with which this should be amalgamated.”

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 13/08/1906: |"APPLICATION BY MR. P.W. PARKINSON ON BEHALF OF MR. F. CROSBIE ROLES FOR 350 ACRES OF AGRICULTURAL LAND ON THE AYER ITAM ROAD").

Ladang ini diusahakan dengan tanaman getah. Beberapa bulan selepas itu, pada 15 Mac 1907, syarikat Ayer Hitam Planting Syndicate Limited telah ditubuhkan bagi menguruskan ladang ini, yang dinamakan “Bukit Hitam Estate”. Penama pemohon ladang ini, P.W. Parkinson, menjadi pengarah pertamanya. Syarikat ini kini dikenali sebagai AYER Holdings Berhad, dan kawasan sekitar ladang ini telah dimajukan oleh anak syarikatnya, Bukit Hitam Development Sdn Bhd: “Our roots can be traced back to 15 March 1907 where The Ayer Hitam Planting Syndicate Limited was founded and mainly cultivated rubber at Bukit Hitam Estate, Selangor. On 28 March 1961, the Company was listed on Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange and its principal activities included rubber and oil palm plantations, and property development encompassing homes, commercial units and industrial buildings. Celebrating a century of achievements in 2007, we adopted a new name, TAHPS Group Berhad. In 2017, we rebranded and changed our name to AYER Holdings Berhad and boasted a market capitalisation of more than RM500 million. Our subsidiaries include Bukit Hitam Development Sdn Bhd, Yee Seng Plantations Sdn Bhd, The Ayer Hitam Development Sdn Bhd and Cendana Maju Construction Sdn Bhd. … On 15 March 1907, The Ayer Hitam Planting Syndicate Limited was registered and incorporated under the Companies Enactment 1897. The authorised share capital was $500,000 divided into 500,000 shares of $1.00 each. The first directors were Messrs. R.W. Harrison, John Gibson, G.H. Day and P.W. Parkinson. The Company cultivated rubber at the Bukit Hitam Estate in Selangor.” (AYER Holdings Berhad, 2021: |"The Ayer Story: Our Journey"). “Through our subsidiary Bukit Hitam Development Sdn Bhd, our property portfolio extends across homes, commercial units and industrial buildings. We continue to launch new projects in Bukit Puchong.” (AYER Holdings Berhad, 2021: |"AYER PROPERTIES").


Kemungkinan lokasi ladang ini ditandakan merah, berdasarkan butiran lokasi di atas, serta peta tahun 1929 di sebelah kanan (Edward Stanford @ F.M.S. Survey Department, 1929: |"1929 F.M.S. Wall Map of Selangor (Kuala Lumpur)").


Kemungkinan lokasi ladang tersebut, kini Bandar Bukit Puchong 2, di pinggir Kampung Pulau Meranti (Mapcarta).

LATAR PERISTIWA: P.W. Parkinson.

LATAR PERISTIWA: Francis Crosbie Roles.

1908: Sungai Chuau - Bangi

1908-02-13: Tinjauan Awal

Tinjauan awal pembinaan Jalan Telok Datok - Ayer Itam tertunda oleh kerana tiada kesan penerokaan ditemui di lapangan:-

“A contract has been let for the survey of the trace but the survey has not yet been made and therefore ? is at present no trace to lockspit.”

(Sumber: PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 13/02/1908: |"LUCK SPILTING TRACE, TELOK DATOH TO AYER ITAM").

1914-02-27: Permohonan Kontrak Pembinaan

PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 27/02/1914: "ASKS THAT THE CONTRACT FOR AYER ITAM BANGI ROAD WORK BE GIVEN TO HIM".

1918-01-15: Tinjauan

1932-07-11: Petisyen Penyelenggaraan

jalan_ayer_itam.txt · Last modified: 2022/02/13 03:47 by sazli